Interesting video on post modern charity.
Philosopher Slavoj Zizek investigates the surprising ethical implications of charitable giving. It makes an interesting case of how charity has changed in modern society.
Interesting video on post modern charity.
Philosopher Slavoj Zizek investigates the surprising ethical implications of charitable giving. It makes an interesting case of how charity has changed in modern society.
Here are my answers to puzzler 5
1) Where was GM Hiram Abiff from (his land of origin)? – He came from Tyre whether from Napthali/Dan is still debated. Modern Tyre lies in Lebanon, near its southern border, and forms the country’s fourth-largest city.
He was the “master workman” whom King Hiram of Tyre sent to Solomon. He was the son of a widow of Dan, and of a Tyrian father, who cast the magnificent brazen works for Solomon’s temple in clay-beds in the valley of Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan.
In his, “Antiquities of the Jews” (Chapter 3:76), Josephus Flavius in his refers to Hiram as an Artificer. “Now Solomon sent for an artificer out of Tyre, whose name was Huram: he was by birth of the tribe of Naphtali, on his mother’s side (for she was of that tribe); but his father was Ur, of the stock of the Israelites.”
1 Kings 7:14 (NKJV) – He was the son of a widow from the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre, a bronze worker; he was filled with wisdom and understanding and skill in working with all kinds of bronze work. So he came to King Solomon and did all his work.
2) What is the name given to him by Josephus, biblically speaking? – The names given to him are Huram Abi or Abdamen or Abdemon which has been alternatively thought to mean “my father” , or if used as a proper name, or it may perhaps be a title of distinction and the equivalent to “master.”
2 Chr. 2:13 (NKJV) – And now I have sent a skillful man, endowed with understanding, Huram my master craftsman
2 Chr. 4:16 (NKJV) – also the pots, the shovels, the forks––and all their articles Huram his master craftsman made of burnished bronze for King Solomon for the house of the LORD.
3) Why does this fact (that he needed to go and “lay out” the next days” work on the trestle board) appear to be in direct contradiction to the description of the building of KST in the books of Kings and even from the first and second degree rituals?
Well to be precise, why would he even have to go and lay out the next day’s work when the temple is very nearly done? I would think that the closer you are to completion, the LESS the need for a plan. Biblically, we are told that not only were the plans drawn and the specifications approved, but every other preparation was made for completing the work before the foundations were laid; Remember, this was originally David’s task but as passed on to King Solomon (Check out the entire 1 Chr. 22 (NKJV) to get up to speed on this, if you need verification). But even if the plans had not been previously laid before the foundation, the stone and timber were carved, marked, and numbered before they were removed from the quarry and the forest; and, hence nothing was required, when the materials were conveyed to Jerusalem, but skilled labor to make it perfect and complete from foundation to capstone.
4) How is it possible for GM Hiram Abiff to enter into the “Sanctum Sanctorum” if the Temple was unfinished?
Our rituals and legend tells us that at the hour of high 12 (1200hrs for military men like me), the men were called from labor to refreshment, then GM Hiram Abiff would retire to the Most Holy Place (Sanctum Sanctorum), to draw his plans and designs, and offer up his prayers and thanksgiving. This could only be accomplished if the Sanctum Sanctorum was somehow finished before the outer portions of the KST. That is the best I can come up with. Nothing that I have read tells us that this is the case…so the question remains, for now!
5) If the Sanctum sanctorum was finished (completed it was supposed to house the Ark of the Covenant), would he have been allowed into its presence there?
So for arguments sake, we will assume that the Sanctum Sanctorum is completed. If it was finished, GM Hiram Abiff would not have been permitted to enter into it. According to God’s law and Jewish religious tradition, only one living person could do this and even then he could only gain access to the Holy of Holies (home to the Ark of the Covenant) only once a year, on the day of atonement. No one was permitted to enter but the H. P. (High Priest). This place was considered so holy in fact, that when the HP went into the Sanctum Sanctorum, he had a rope tied around his waist, so that he might be pulled out of the Sanctum Santorum in case his sudden death should occur while he was inside.
Under the law of Moses the presiding officer of the Aaronic Priesthood was called the high priest. The office was hereditary and came through the firstborn among the family of Aaron, Aaron himself being the first high priest of the Aaronic order. The office was usually a lifetime calling and it was restored to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok (High Priest during the reign of both king David and King Solomon).
For more information please check out:
Especially check out the way his consecration differed from that of ordinary priests in anointing and robing: on the high priests’ head alone was the anointing oil poured
6) Is this story consistent with what the bible records about what happened to GM Hiram Abiff before, during and after the building of KST?
This legend of Hiram Abiff (Huram Abi, Abdemon, etc.), on the surface, does not appear to be consistent with the biblical/historical account. But maybe we have to dig a little deeper. The Holy Bible NEVER mentions the death of GM Hiram Abiff. According to the works of Ancient Hebrew historian, Josephus Flavius, GM Hiram Abiff not only lived to finish all the work, but also, returned to Tyre, and died there at a good old age.
Some people believe that the allegory contained in the story of GM Hiram Abiff is, at the very least, a composite of the three biblical figures, Betzalel (one of the wisest biblical figures), Adoniram (of the greatest managers with excellent supervisory skills) and Huram Abi (great metal worker) sprinkled on top of those is the knowledge of a Master Mason.
So, whatever you believe about this story, there is room for numerous interpretations of the allegory and they should always lead us farther down the road, toward more light!
Does this suggest that KST was built inside out, I may spend a little time on this.?
As for question #5, I always thought KST including the Sanctum Sanctorum were compartmentalized. Therefore you could enter a portion of the Sanctum Sanctorum ( by one definition of Sanctum Sanctorum – a most private place) and still not be in the presence of the Ark of the Convenent ( by the second definition of sanctum sanctorum – the most holy of holies). Just a couple of thoughts
In question 4, I wasn’t suggesting that the temple was built from the inside out, I was trying to apply a logic puzzle to the enigma of GM HA being in the Sanctum Sanctorum of the unfinished Temple…IF the Temple construction took place as the bible states, THEN it is physically impossible for him to be in there at that time. Therefore, the only plausible way for him to have retired there, would be for the Sanctum Sanctorum to have been completed before the rest of the temple.
Brothers, As we travel through masonry on our quest to find more light, many times, we concentrate on ensuring that we know and understand our ritual inside out. That is a very noble and worthy goal. However, we must not forget our Rule and Guide ( one of the great lights). So this week I thought I would try something slightly different. I will give you some passages from the bible ( well technically, I will only give you the references, you will have to look them up) and then you are to tell where it applies in the Ritual (what degree, what portion of the ceremony, etc.)! This should be a lot of fun, as some of these you know already, while some, you may not be as familiar with. Here we go: Deuteronomy 23:21-23 Ecclesiastes 5:4-5 Numbers 30:2 James 2:20 Genesis 3:7 Acts 19:12 Genesis 3;24 Joshua 5:13-15 Nehemiah 7:1-3 Exodus 3:13-15.
KEYWORD: Rule and Guide Refresher.
Answer to Puzzle 6
The Grand Lodge of Kentucky is the latest battle ground in the fight to bring Freemasonry into the 21st century, where brothers are calling other brothers “a flaming faggot” in their sexual orientation.
From the Lexington Herald-Leader in the state of Kentucky, the W. Master of Winchester Masonic lodge was asked to resign because of his recent coming out as being gay. His admission was enough to cause some distraught brothers to walk out on the W. Master because of their distress.
Refusing the insistence of his resignation, Frankfort lodge drafted a petition to change the state’s fraternal constitution to prohibit openly Gay men from being Masons, the proposed change saying:
“Freemasonry is pro-family and recognizes marriage as between one man and one woman. Any other relationship is a violation of the moral law and therefore unmasonic conduct. Homosexual relationships, openly professed and practiced, are a violation of the moral law and therefore unmasonic conduct. No openly homosexual Freemason shall be allowed to retain membership in this grand jurisdiction.”
Taken at the annual meeting of the Kentucky Grand Lodge, the constitutional change was rejected, but not without rumblings that there would be more on this in the future.
You can read the whole story on the Herald-Leader.
The issues does open the door to a wider consideration, that as roughly 15% of the U.S. population is gay (see the Gallup Poll data and the Demographics of sexual orientation from Wikipedia statistics) it goes without saying that so too then would the Lodge have a similar percentage of gay members. And, as such, those brothers may or may not be out in the open, given the reaction of those around them. is it right then to discriminate against them?
In the article, it mentions that following the vote there was a degree of grumbling that lead some observers to say that the issue would manifest again in the future to try and amend the constitution to encompass some meaning of family values so as to prohibit gay men from becoming member, which would likely mean some test administered at petition to determine orientation.
All of this is absolutely absurd, given that the fraternity is secular and precipitated on the idea of equality and liberty. On the reverse, the Kentucky state constitution was amended to say “Only a marriage between one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as legal in Kentucky”, but this issue goes beyond the recognition of marriage to a discrimination based on preference.
The argument is that homosexuality goes against the moral law, but as I’ve pointed out in the past, which Moral Law? As a Mason, I have to say, their argument does not wash and any man who is a just and upright individual can stand and be a Mason. Discrimination based on sexual orientation is not a valid argument to exclude from the organization, just as race (and gender) should not be either. To exclude by orientation like this is an undue control over someone in an area that has no consequence to their experience.
By accepting the reality that there are members who are gay, so too do we need to accept the idea of same sex partner widowers, who should be just as important in remembering as the heterosexual counterparts. Yes, this is a dramatic awakening to very real social issue and one that is not insurmountable or destructive towards the institution. To the contrary, to wall the Fraternity behind a morality test of pro-family/anti gay vitriol is a sure fire way to seal the future of the fraternity into a political abyss of social dis-unity. In other words, Freemasonry would no longer be an active participant in civil society becoming instead a political club house.
What do you think? Should Freemasonry be tolerant towards openly Gay members?
At last, the paperback edition of Dan Brown’s The Lost Symbol hits store shelves on October 19th.
The sleeper hit that sent us head long into the adventures of Professor Robert Langdon in, under,and above the greater Washington D.C. capitol to save his mentor and close friend 33rd degree Mason Peter Solomon from the clutches of his son Zachary (aka Mal’akh) who also happens to be a 33rd degree Mason bent on the destruction of his father in the quest for the ancient mystery of the fraternity.
While the book was long awaited for its release in 2009, the paper back edition now opens the subject matter up to a wider audience to question the symbolic significance within it. More than a book that injects Noetics into the mainstream, Brown touches on a few topics of interest to those in the mystery school field, including the Kybalion, Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis, the Sanctum Sanctorum, and the Hand of Mysteries, just to name a few. Plus, if the esoteric aspects of the mystery schools were not enough of a plot device, Brown employs some of the more sacred Masonic sites to add in as a kicker.
The book, while unlike the Da Vinci Code, reads more as a swan song to the 300 year old fraternity than it does a mystery thriller. Unlike the Code where the Catholic Church’s Opus Dei was the villain at large, in The Lost Symbol its less institutional villain and more mental insanity as the protagonist which leaves less of that secret society conspiratorial taste and more of a complicated question of who to cheer for since its all around bad news for all involved, the fraternity that is compromised by a mad man, the Oedipus complex of secrets (not mother), or the video extortion plot. Its complex to say the least and a riveting story line right up to the very end.
If your still on the fence, give a read to some of the reviews posted here from its release last year:
The Lost Symbol – a review
The Lost Symbol – it’s the symbol of the symbolism. – The Masonic Perspective
The Lost Symbol – The Road Best Not Travelled
Masonic Central Pod Cast with Mark Koltko-Rivera on the Lost Symbol
Or, if the original hefty $29.95 price of the hard bound was a deterrent, you can give the paperback edition of The Lost Symbol on Amazon a read for the low low price of $9.99 and catch up on what the post Da Vinci Code – Freemasonry – Dan Brown buzz was all about.
I will say that you will all know what an eavesdropper is by now, so I won’t spend any time on this, let’s just concentrate on the word cowan for this discussion.
From the affair of Jephthah, an Ephraimite was termed a cowan. Cowan comes from the Hebrew and Egyptian word, cohen which was the title for a priest or prince, and a term of honor. Cohen was the name for a dog as well. Cowan also has a middle French counterpart, couenne, which means “bumpkin”, “ignoramus”, “fool”, “pretender” or “interloper”.
Now, in that we understand the meaning and origin, then perhaps this passage by St. John, which cautions the brethren, that “without are dogs” (κυνες), cowans or listeners as seen below, takes on new meaning:
Or, maybe now when we read the passage where St. Paul exhorts the Christians to “beware of dogs, because they are evil workers” as seen below becomes more eye opening for us Masonically:
Here are also other biblical examples of this:
For a complete listing of biblical references that I found, check out:
1) Pr 26:11 Isa 56:10,11 Mt 7:6,15 24:10 Ga 5:15 2Ti 4:14,15 2Pe 2:22 Re 22:15
Once again see how the rule and guide has played a crucial role in informing our masonic ritual. From our reading and discussion on this topic, we should be able to see that the Hebrew/Egyptian/French word, cowan/κυων/couenne, for a dog, evil worker, ignorant, pretending fool, is the masonic cowan. NO WONDER WE SHOULD WATCH FOR THEIR APPROACH! ‘Til next time brothers,
Brothers, Today we will go back to the ritual and some of the allegory found therein. Please read this short passage:
Here are my questions:
This one will require that you will look a little deeper into the rituals of the first, second and third degrees AND compare and contrast those with the biblical accounts of the building of KST, and GMs Hiram of Tyre, Hiram Abiff and King Solomon. Happy hunting! As usual, an email with the following keyword for answers.
KEYWORD: GM Hiram Abiff
Answer to Puzzle 5
1 Kings 6:7 – In building the temple, only blocks dressed at the quarry were used, and no hammer, chisel or any other iron tool was heard at the temple site while it was being built.
Some metallic substance is demanded after we were taught to wear our clothes, but we had not…(I won’t go into further detail, so as to stay true to our obligation-besides if you don’t know this basic stuff from the ritual, then we’ve got big problems). No doubt, most of you have gotten the above reference as the answer to this week’s puzzler about the building of King Solomon’s Temple. As Masons, we study both the Old (Torah Law) and New Testaments. God commanded that an altar, erected to God, be completely natural and not made from stones cut by metal tools. No altar stone(s) could be hewn or shaped with metal instruments. Stones subject to such treatment were disqualified for Temple usage. They became profane in God’s eyes. Period. The basic logic underlying this is that metal tools are usually used for war, whereas the altar is the tool for peace. Thus the tool for peace should NEVER be hewn with the tools of war. This reason alone should suffice us, yet, as with all things in Torah, there is much more than meets the eye ( I will leave it up to you to study more and discuss how the SHAMIR comes into play here…way too deep a discussion for this email, but enlightening though).
When Solomon’s Temple was built the Biblical record records that there was no sound of stones being chiseled into shape, that’s from a reference found in the book of I Kings 6:7. But what most Masons don’t know is that King Solomon, as God’s choice to lead the chosen people, was compelled to comply with Jewish laws and customs the preceded him by millennia. So, he was given orders that it be so. Specifically, God gave instructions on how to construct altars that would be consecrated for offerings. Check out these biblical references.
Deuteronomy 27:5-6 – “Moreover, you shall build there an altar to the LORD your God, an altar of stones; you shall not wield an iron tool on them. “You shall build the altar of the LORD your God of uncut stones, and you shall offer on it burnt offerings to the LORD your God;
Exodus 20:25 – And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it.
Joshua 8:31 – Now Joshua built an altar to the LORD God of Israel in Mount Ebal, just as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded the sons of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of uncut stones on which no man had wielded an iron tool; and they offered burnt offerings on it to the LORD, and sacrificed peace offerings.
You see brothers, as soon as they were come into Canaan, the Israelites had to set up a monument, on which they must write the words of Moses’ Law. They were also instructed to set up an altar, because the word and prayer must go together. And they were required to do this without delay, and without caring for the unsettled state of Israel, or their enemies. By doing this, they confirmed the covenant of the Lord with his people, as appointed. This altar must be made of unhewn stones, such as they found upon the field. This should sound familiar to some of you Red house brothers, with a twist…Christ, our Altar, is a stone cut out of the mountain without human hands, refused by the builders, as having no form or comeliness, but accepted of God the Father, and made the Head of the corner (corner stone). In the Old Testament the words of the law are written, along with the curse for violations of the law. These together would easily overcome us with horror, if we had not received, in the New Testament, an altar erected close by, which gives consolation. God in his infinite patience and wisdom has left the printed copies of the Scriptures among us, to do away the necessity of such methods as were presented to Israel. The end of the gospel is to make the word of God as plain as possible. (obviously, our Muslim brethren would actually have Mohammed as their cornerstone and their rule and guide is the Qur’an)
Like the Israelites, we must not think to defer covenanting with God till we are settled in the world; nor must any business put us from minding and pursuing the one truly needful thing in our lives (remember our 24 inch gauge brethren). They built an altar, and offered sacrifice to God, in token of their dedicating themselves to God, as peaceful, living sacrifices to his honor, in and by a Mediator.Following Christ’s life is how we are to becme that “perfected ashlar” untouched by the “metal” of the world. Masonically understanding this ultimate sacrifice, allows us to conceptualize a way to begin to prepare ourselves to fit as living stones, for that spiritual building, without being profaned in any way, fully acceptable to and pleasing in th eyes of, God.
We have all seen this/ read this or took part in the following at some point (we should see this every time we meet);
WM: Brother JD what is the first great care of Masons when convened?
JD: To see that we are duly tyled.
WM: You will attend to that part of your duty, and inform the Tyler that we are about to open a Lodge on the ……and direct him to act accordingly.
The JD opens the door, and relays the orders from the WM…….
JD: WM, the Lodge is tyled.
WM: How tyled?
JD: By a brother of this degree, without the inner door, invested with the proper implement of his office.
WM: His duty there?
JD: To ward off the approach of all cowans and eavesdroppers; suffer none to pass or repass, except such as are duly qualified, and have the Worshipful Master’s permission.
How many times have we as Masons, parroted this exchange and never took the time to consider what the words “cowans” and “eavesdroppers” mean? So today’s puzzler will require that we look a little deeper. Here are the questions for today:
KEY WORD: Cowans and Eavesdroppers.
Answer to Puzzle 4
The origin of the word is a Greek translation of Latin and it does reference exactly what you pointed out (that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens). First degree is also right, but wherein does the answer lie my brother?
Acheiropoieta also called “Icons Not Made by Hand” are a particular kind of icon which are alleged to have come into existence miraculously, not created by a human painter, which are usually images of either Jesus or the Virgin Mary. The works are believed to be so wondrous and beautiful, that no mere man could have created them. The most notable examples are, in the Eastern church the Image of Edessa or Mandylion, and in the West, the Veil of Veronica and the Shroud of Turin. More importantly for western Masons is the Shroud of Turin (burial shroud or linen that purportedly has an image of Jesus Christ after crucifixion but before resurrection). What is really important is that it is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in Turin, Italy. Reportedly, the shroud was one of the sacred relics that our Templar forebears kept as part of their treasure. (No wonder it is kept in a church dedicated to the memory of the Holy St. John the Baptist…) All of these icons have been known to heal miraculously. So why is there no emphasis on the Mandylion like there is for the Shroud of Turin?
So, to sum it all up, we as masons are to fashion our minds, as living stones to fit in that wondrous and beautiful spiritual building…that house not made with hands (human) eternal in the heavens! But where in the bible brother, does this particular part of our ritual come from? Surely it didn’t just crop up out of nowhere? We tell new initiates and our younger brothers that our Rule and Guide offers an explanation for everything in Masonic rituals and it does (Scroll down to see the answer below). Good job…
Mark 14:53-63 (King James Version)
And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes. And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire. And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death ; and found none. For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together . And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying , We heard him say , I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands. But neither so did their witness agree together . And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying , Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee? But he held his peace , and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? And Jesus said , I am : and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith , What need we any further witnesses?
(This is more than Jesus talking about tearing down a physical temple, he was specifically talking about tearing down this body to prepare for that spiritual building, not made with hands eternal in the heavens)
2 Corinthians 5:1 (King James Version) – For we know that if the house of this tabernacle were dissolved , we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.
Remember, in Masonry there are always several layers. So the next puzzler is one question with multiple parts, each digging deeper than the last:
KEY WORD: “Silence”
Answer to Puzzle 3
Is it me, or does anyone else out there wish some of the meetings were conducted like this? Is guess its how they do it in Jorhat, in the Indian state of Assam.
Freemasons Kaun Hai Jorhat
Bollywood GhostHunters – so I appologize in advance for the audio – my guess, its Indian?
Here is the answer to the previous puzzler.
The Seven Liberal Arts were divided into the Trivium (“the three roads”) and the Quadrivium (“the four roads”).
The Trivium (Masonically alludes to the three Principal Moral Virtues) and consists of:
The Quadrivium (Masonically alludes to the Four Cardinal Virtues) and consists of:
These seven roads are supposed to lead to Truth and Knowledge (Illumination or More light in masonry). These ideas were first introduced in the FC degree during your journey up a flight of winding stairs.
The significance of the this can be found by thinking about all of the symbolism and allegory found in the FC degree. We are taught that when we come to the number seven, we are almost overwhelmed with the many facts associated with it. The number seven was said to be ‘perfect’ because it contained the numbers 3 and 4 and was itself indivisible and could not be created by multiplication. This gave it the name of the virgin number. Originally, there were seven years to an apprenticeship, there were seven planets known to man of the middle ages (organization period of modern Freemasonry), and there are seven days in a week of which the 7th is the Sabbath and Solomon’s temple was said to have been built in seven years. Jericho was encircled seven times by seven priests, and these seven liberal arts and sciences, known as the trivium and quadrivium, were thought to contain the total sum of all human knowledge.
Seven represents symbolically the combination of the Trinity and four cardinal virtues (Justice, Temperance, Fortitude and Prudence), it is the number of the basic musical notes, of colors and of the spheres. Seven is related to perfection, to religious truth and also with knowledge. It is hard to find a more astounding mass of facts associated with a number until we observe that three and five are similar. Masonically, we are reminded that a Lodge needs seven officers to open the Lodge and those seven steps of the staircase reminding us of the liberal arts and sciences. Jacob’s ladder is usually shown with seven rungs of which 3 are considered most exemplary for masons (Faith, Hope and Charity) and the other four rungs are concerned with four cardinal virtues(Justice, Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence) and the perfect points of our interests (Manual, Guttural, Pectoral, Pedal) [you guys match the proper virtue with the right point]. While then there also usually seven small stars clustered together on the WM jewel, which is significant, in that they are repeated as a symbol at least three times within our Lodges and give us much to think about. What else can you find that relates to this topic? For Biblical reference see- 1 Cor 13:13 (Three moral virtues)
As Masons, we are often called to travel in “foreign lands”. In order to do this “work” effectively, we should also study foreign languages. This puzzler comes from a foreign land and represents something that should be intimately familiar to all of us. Can anyone tell me what Acheiropoietos means, where it comes from (which “land” or language), how does it relate to masonry and finally what degree you first encountered this concept?
KEY WORD: “Acheiropoietos”
My Lodge, Pride of Mt. Pisgah #135, MWPHGLTX, is a small, low budget Lodge operating in simple surroundings. But don’t let that fool you. Serious and deep study of Masonry is going on among its members. Not only does Mt. Pisgah spend a great deal of time and effort in instructing its candidates but it also offers much in the way of continuing education for Master Masons, even those who have been Masons for many years.
Pride of Mt. Pisgah has many learned members who contribute to that education and understanding of Masonry. One who dedicates himself to that purpose is Bro. Dr. Audra Robinson, PM. It is he who has been running a Puzzler/Quiz for our members.
Now I bring that Puzzler/Quiz to a greater audience. Please feel free to offer some answers to what is asked in the comments section. Before researching the question ask yourself if you have any hint to what is being asked before looking it up. Bro. Dr. Robinson is not only looking for word definitions but also themes. What is the over all scenario of how certain words are used, what is their context and what does this all have to do with Masonry?
In the first Question:
Some things to think about: what do they mean, where did you first encountered them, how are they symbolized and why are the divided that way. Is there any biblical references to them?
KEY WORD: “trivium and quadrivium”
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