This is not your grandfather’s Freemasonry, at least not in Boston and the Grand Lodge AF & AM.
Freemasonry has opened up in the last 50 years, sharing its goals and purpose with the public so that they can be better understood. And the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts has been at the forefront of this openness.
It was four years ago that Massachusetts launched its Ben Franklin series that described the Fraternity to the general public. There is a concerted effort here to dispel some of the myths and misinformation that has been allowed to exist by tight lipped Freemasons and reach out to the public in hopes of creating a better understanding of the Craft.
This is all reflected in the WGBH Boston Television piece on Massachusetts Freemasonry. Go back a few decades and this would have been a hit piece. But because Massachusetts Mainstream Freemasonry has laid the groundwork of years of informing the public of just what Freemasonry is all about, something your Grandfather’s Freemasonry would not do, this is the closest you can get to an infomercial.
This year I made a family vacation trip back to Nova Scotia where I summered every year as a child. We visited many historical sites while there, among them was Shelburne, Nova Scotia. When I drove down the main street of Shelburne there were British flags everywhere and the word “Loyalist” was prominently used on signs, businesses and all things written.
So I was to relearn that a large contingent of White Americans, who wanted to remain loyal to the British Crown after the American Patriots defeated the British in the Revolutionary War, sailed to Nova Scotia in 1783 and settled in what is now the town of Shelburne. All this I guess I knew as a child but it was 51 years since I last set foot on Nova Scotia soil.
The town of Shelburne reports:
“In the spring of 1783, 5,000 settlers arrived on the shores of Shelburne Harbour from New York and the middle colonies of America. Assurance of living under the British flag, and promises of free land, tools, and provisions lured many to the British Colonies at that time. Four hundred families associated to form a town at Port Roseway, which Governor Parr renamed Shelburne later that year. This group became known as the Port Roseway Associates. In the fall of 1783, a second wave of settlers arrived in Shelburne. By 1784, the population of this new community is estimated to have been at least 10,000; the fourth largest in North America, much larger than either Halifax or Montreal.” (1)
Certificate of Freedom signed by British Brigadier General Samuel Birch
What I didn’t know was that less than 10 miles down the road was a town settled by Black Loyalists in the same year. The town was named Birchtown in honor of British Brigadier General Samuel Birch who signed the majority of the Certificates of Freedom held by Black Loyalists most of whom had fought for the British during the Revolutionary War.
Here is how that came about:
“When Lord Dunmore, Royal Governor of Virginia, lost control of that colony to the rebels in the summer of 1775, the economy of Virginia was based on slave labor. Lord Dunmore issued a proclamation that any slave or indentured person would be given their freedom if they took up arms with the British against the rebels. As a result, 2,000 slaves and indentured persons joined his forces. Later, other British supporters in the colonies issued similar proclamations.
Then the British Commander-in-chief at New York, Sir Henry Clinton, issued the Philipsburg proclamation when the British realized they were losing the war. It stated that any Negro to desert the rebel cause would receive full protection, freedom, and land. It is estimated that many thousands of people of African descent joined the British and became British supporters.” (2)
“When the end came, the top British commanders kept their word to the King’s Black soldiers.
In November 1782, Britain and America signed a provisional treaty granting the former colonies their independence. As the British prepared for their final evacuation, the Americans demanded the return of American property, including runaway slaves, under the terms of the peace treaty. Sir Guy Carleton, the acting commander of British forces, refused to abandon black Loyalists to their fate as slaves. With thousands of apprehensive blacks seeking to document their service to the Crown, Brigadier General Samuel Birch, British commandant of the city of New York, created a list of claimants known as The Book of Negroes.” (3)
Some interesting behind the scenes bargaining led to this conclusion:
In April 1783 the first evacuation fleet left for Nova Scotia. A week later the British Commander, Sir Guy Carleton, sailed up the Hudson River to Orangetown for a conference with General Washington to discuss the evacuation. As the victorious commander, Washington opened the meeting by reiterating the resolution of Congress regarding “the delivery of all Negroes and other property.” In response, the defeated Carleton indicated that in his desire for a speedy evacuation he had already sent off some 6000 refugees, including “a number of Negroes.” Observers from both sides noted the general’s consternation as he remonstrated with Carleton that the action was against the express stipulation of the treaty. Calmly, Carleton offered an unapologetic explanation, saying that in his interpretation, the term property meant property owned by Americans at the time the treaty was signed, so did not include those who had responded to British proclamations years before. Never would the British government have agreed “to reduce themselves to the necessity of violating their faith to the Negroes,” he told Washington. Warming to his subject, he further insisted “delivering up Negroes to their former masters … would be a dishonourable violation of the public faith.” In the unlikely event that the British government put a different construction on the treaty, he promised compensation would be paid to the owners and to this end he had directed “a register be kept of all the Negroes who were sent off.” Protesting as he was bound to do, Washington understood the depth of feeling behind the words “dishonourable violation of the public faith.” By the time the meeting came to its inconclusive end, he had privately conceded defeat.
Carleton wrote in icy prose; “the Negroes in question, I have already said, I found free when I arrived at New York, I had therefore no right, as I thought, to prevent their going to any part of the world they thought proper.” Should Washington fail to comprehend his intransigence on this point, he added a thinly veiled warning: “I must confess the mere supposition that the King’s minister could deliberately stipulate in a treaty, an engagement to be guilty of the notorious breach of public faith towards people of any complexion, seems to denote a less friendly disposition than I would wish, and, I think, less friendly than we might expect.” (4)
Replica of the Book of Negroes at the Black Loyalist Heritage Museum, Birchtown, Nova Scotia
The “Book of Negroes” was a record of every Black that got on a ship bound for Nova Scotia and left New York. What was recorded was ship, Captain, name, where bound, person’s name, age, description and free or non-free (claimant). Some 114 ships were gathered for the deportation and 3000 Blacks headed for various parts of Nova Scotia with another 2000 electing to go elsewhere (Other Canadian ports, England, Jamaica, The Bahamas, Germany and Belgium). Here is how it is reported by The Nova Scotia Museum:
“The British-American Commission identified the Black people in New York who had joined the British before the surrender, and issued “certificates of freedom” signed by General Birch or General Musgrave. Those who chose to emigrate were evacuated by ship. To make sure no one attempted to leave who did not have a certificate of freedom, the name of any Black person on board a vessel, whether slave, indentured servant, or free, was recorded, along with the details of enslavement, escape, and military service, in a document called the Book of Negroes (2)
Unfortunately the Nova Scotia experience proved to be a tough go for emigrating Blacks. The winters were harsh, much of the land unarable and along with broken promises life became unbearable. While almost all Blacks in Birchtown received town lots only about one third of them received farmland. Of 649 Black men who applied for Beaver Dam land grants only 187 received them. The Whites had settled first and grabbed the best of what good farm land there was. Consequently many Blacks became indentured servants or share croppers. (5)
Into these struggles for existence came Reverend John Marrant in 1785 to minister to the Black Loyalists, poor Whites, and the Micmac Indians.
Marrant a free Black born in New York moved to the South at an early age upon the death of his father. His family moved from Florida to Georgia to Charleston, South Carolina. Instead of learning a trade, Marrant became an accomplished musician and it is this talent that took him to a church where George Whitefield was preaching. Converted on the spot to Christianity and still a teenager he headed for the forests when he had difficulty getting along with his family. There he lived with and preached to Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Catawars, and Howsaws Indians for a
Black Loyalist Heritage Museum, Birchtown, Nova Scotia
number of years before returning home. At home he started preaching to the slaves on the Jenkins Plantation. When the Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, Marrant served in the British Navy as a cannoneer. After the war he retired to London working for a cotton merchant. He also preached at the Spa-Fields Chapel where he attracted the attention of the Chapel’s benefactor, the Countess of Huntingdon. She arranged Marrant’s ordination and subsequent service to Birchtown, Nova Scotia.
Marrant along with George Whitefield were members of the Huntingdon Connection that held to a strict doctrine of predestination as distinguished from Charles and John Wesley who held to a salvation by faith alone.
I visited the Black Loyalist Heritage Museum in Nova Scotia and took the 11/2 hour guided tour. The tour consisted of three locations, the Museum itself, St. Paul Anglican Church and the Black burying grounds. All were grouped together in one big parcel of land. I viewed the Book of Negroes at the Museum, watched a film at the church and stood where unmarked graves were below my feet.
Because of hard times and a withdrawal of support from the Huntingdon Connection, Marrant left Birchtown, Nova Scotia in 1788 and headed for Boston.
“By 1789, all of North America was in the grip of a serious famine. The winters had been long and cold for the past several years, and the settlers’ dreams of establishing farms were dashed by poor land and a desperate scarcity of farming’s necessities. Land grants had taken far too long to arrive, and when they did, most had wasted their savings simply keeping themselves alive.”
“Famine struck everybody, white and black alike. Ships from Montreal arrived in Halifax and were desperately seeking rations to relieve them.” “Since Halifax was no better off, they were sent away. Nova Scotia’s population was tripled in a few short years by Loyalist refugees. When the British stopped supporting them, the entire province plunged into poverty. Nova Scotia had truly earned it’s nickname of Nova Scarcity.”
“However, most of the whites had a better option available to them. They could return to the United States, where tensions had cooled considerably and most of them had family. Most of them did exactly that. Shelburne was hardly the New York of the North, which was what they had hoped for. Even wealthy merchants had largely been reduced to poverty. Farming was nearly an impossibility. Merchants had nobody worth trading with due to restrictions on trade with the US and various mercantile laws. Even the whaling industry had collapsed. Only fishing offered a opportunity to earn a decent living.”
“Former slaves had no such options. For them the choice was a brutal one: misery or death. The people who had employed them, albeit under exploitative conditions, departed for the United States. A bad situation got much worse. Without farmland or anybody to employ them, most of the free blacks became dependent on charity.” (6)
After too many years of misery, in 1792 one third of the Black population of Birchtown along with Blacks from other Nova Scotia settlements boarded ships for Sierra Leone where they were promised supplies and land. They founded the city of Freetown and to this day relatives from the same family are divided. Some live in Nova Scotia still and others in Freetown, Africa.
Meanwhile Marrant landed in Boston and in March 1789 was introduced to Prince Hall. He ended staying with Hall a short time at Hall’s home. No one knows where Marrant was made a Freemason, whether he was initiated in London or by Prince Hall. But what we do know that Prince Hall became smitten with Marrant and quickly appointed him as chaplain of African Lodge #459.
Not only that but a scant few months later Prince Hall charged Marrant to give the address to African Lodge #459 on St. John the Baptist’s Day, June 24, 1789. And Joanna Brooks tells us that Hall even recruited two White Masons to print and distribute Marrant’s sermon address. (7) This was the first printed formal address before the first African Lodge and among the first printed works by an African American in Western Civilization in the latter part of the Eighteenth Century. (8)
“Marrant preached that day a message of the equality of all men and the African roots of Christianity and Freemasonry. However, Marrant was also advancing some new theological ideas dangerous to established authority in his Connection as well as generally. Marrant’s ideas were egalitarian in nature: They promoted the dismissal of scholastic pietism and established the importance of the individual’s reading of scripture. Marrant preached that the New Testament was the sole authority and arbiter between the individual and salvation, and that Christians should incorporate their own experiences in readings of the Bible. He also advanced extemporaneous or “inspired” preaching and prayer as indicators of genuine Christian development and of godly connection. Marrant is clearly disdainful of “learned,” scholastic Christianity, and he suggests individuals–independent of traditional hierarchical authorities–are capable of inspired readings of the Scriptures, and this practice is the center of Christian theology and worship. Most Congregational Christians, particularly the ministers of established churches in a cosmopolitan community like Boston, would have shunned such ideas because they undermined the authority that they had spent so much time and effort in school attaining. This direct attack rejects established doctrines. It implies that common folk could glean the meaning of Scripture, independent of established church authorities. (9)
Reverend John Marrant was on the best seller list of books of his day. His three publications were enormous hits in England as well as the United States.
His published works were:
A Narrative of the Lord’s Wonderful Dealings with John Marrant, A Black, 1785
A Sermon Preached on the 24th Day of June 1789…at the Request of the Right Worshipful the Grand Master Prince Hall, and the Rest of the Brethren of the African Lodge of the Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons in Boston, 1789
A Journal of the Rev. John Marrant, from August the 18th, 1785, to the 16th of March, 1790
The first was reprinted 17 times.
It is said that Marrant had a profound influence on Prince Hall and Hall’s theology. This is really only half the story. But the second half has already been written by our own Honorable Gregory S. Kearse in an article from the Phylaxis Magazine, Third Quarter 2014 titled “The Influence Of The Reverend John Marrant’s Sermon On Prince Hall’s Charges Of 1792 & 1797.” It is here you need to go to complete the story.
The Reverend John Marrant was a lot like Martin Luther King. He had an enormous influence in a short period of time and died too soon. Marrant was not assassinated but he did go back to England after only two short years in Boston in 1790. The following year, 1791, he died at the age of 35.
He left a legacy of profound influence on the Black community and throughout Christendom.
“Although his knowledge and use of orthodox Calvinism was the means by which he was able to secure initial funding for his ministry, it was a progressive Calvinism he taught to his congregations. The discourse of his ministry is rooted in the discourse of freedom and egalitarianism that the Black revolutionaries and Black Loyalists shared with one another. As a veteran Loyalist who fought in the Revolutionary War, who then returned to North American to preach to Loyalist immigrants and become chaplain of African Lodge 459 in Boston, Marrant reveals a faith that Christian community, particularly among Black people, far outweighed the nationalist and sectarian interests of his day. His Narrative illuminates the roots of Black theology that engaged in progressive social action in both principle and practice. With these progressive religious roots, the principles he promoted would flourish in African American culture and yield fruit in some part of virtually every major religious, and often secular, Black institution developed since.” (9)
Let us remember these words he delivered to African Lodge #459.
“Let all my brethren Masons consider what they are called to – May God grant you an humble heart to fear God and love his commandment; then and only then you will in sincerity love your brethren: And you will be enabled…to be kindly affectioned one to another, with brotherly love in honour preferring one another…This we profess to believe as Christians and as Masons.” (10)
(10) A Sermon Preached on the 24th Day of June 1789…at the Request of the Right Worshipful the Grand Master Prince Hall, and the Rest of the Brethren of the African Lodge of the Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons in Boston, 1789 – John Marrant.
One of the problems in Freemasonry is a problem that is indigenous to most large, prestigious organizations, societies and politics. It is that these prominent groups attract leaders who are all about gaining the position of leadership and little about improving or growing the group. We call these people medal or title chasers. They get to be top leader not by what they do but who they know, by favors and even bribery.
There is an old saying: “Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” The fact that leadership positions in these groups brings to the leader a lot of power and prestige can be a corruptible factor. This tendency is not confined to private groups and societies. We can see it in large corporations and in politics.
Some good well intentioned people who obtain leadership face such a quagmire when they get to the top that they decide not to push for reforms. They are not up to a fight, a bloody battle where they will have to make some tough decisions for the good of the organization
Either leadership type will “go with the flow” and cruise through their time in office refusing to create any waves lest they lose their coveted position. They are caretakers, seat warmers, who cruise and smooze through their time as top leader. But in the long run the group suffers.
None of this describes the leadership style of Grand Princess Captain Lucille Samuel. Not a wilting flower, Samuel is all into building relationships based on TRUST, SINCERITY & THE GOOD OF THE ORDER. At the same time she refuses to accept mediocrity and will not hesitate to discipline those who are bringing her Order down. Lastly she is not afraid to vocally criticize her Order demanding that it straighten up and fly right.
Here in the second Allocution The Beehive has published from Grand Princess Captain Samuel given at her Grand Session last week she does just that.
Speak not in the ears of a fool; for he will despise the wisdom of thy word.
R. Lucille Samuel Grand Princess Captain Lone Star Grand Guild of Texas PHA Heroines of the Templars Crusade International Grand Senior Shepherdess International Grand Deputy of Texas International Grand Court of Cyrene Crusaders
Those of you that are computer savvy I want you to take a moment to ride with me. Those of you that are not I will be your driver. Most people know that when a computer is infected with a virus it completely shuts down all programs. All your files and software are infected by an unknown virus that usually cannot be cured. Most of the time the computer has to be thoroughly wiped clean and all software and hardware reloaded. This is so costly and time consuming especially when 80% of our time is spent on computer technology.
Many people are afraid to learn or become acquainted with computers or any type of advanced technology. They don’t feel confident or brave enough to tackle the age of modern information.
I am sure all of you can relate to the Mainframe of our organization which is our Lodges, Chapters and Palaces. Because we allow these viruses to enter our organizations and spread their infectious ignorance our Order is becoming a Social Club instead of a well respected Masonic Order.
We have lost our confidence in ourselves and forgotten that this great Order is based upon true brother and sisterhood and not friendship. It is respect for all others and not only listening but truly hearing what you were taught during your obligation at the Altar. The most sincere respect of another is hearing what others have to say and not always monopolizing the conversation.
How can you consider yourself a member of any organization when you can’t look your own brother or sister in the eye? How can you deny others admission into the order because of the hatred you have for their friend or mentor? What gives you the right to slander your brother or sister because of envy or hatred? Did you know Haters are people with NO vision and they envy progress? Many people live for compliments and not accomplishments.
. R. Lucille Samuel Grand Princess Captain Lone Star Grand Guild of Texas PHA Heroines of the Templars Crusade International Grand Senior Shepherdess International Grand Deputy of Texas International Grand Court of Cyrene Crusaders
Instead of being the problem try solving the problem! All these smiling wolves in sheep’s clothing need to be eliminated. Don’t come to me with gossip about me. Stop the gossip instead of entertaining it. You can’t play both sides of the fence or ride the fence. You either saddle that horse and ride or stay in the Barn! Some of you are pretty weak when you allow friendship to override integrity and your own self respect. When you allow your supposedly friends (by the way they are only using you in case you did not know) to handle their dirty work so they can gain control of the Order then that makes you a pawn in their chess game. If you are so blind that you allow potentially great members to be turned away then why did you ever petition our Order? As Reverend Sampson says Are You A Fan or a Follower? Always remember a FAKE person is like GOLD because FAKE never FADES!
We need to STAND UP and TAKE BACK this Masonic Order. Those that do not have the confidence or strength to work with us instead of against us need to step aside! Our strength and struggles are the backbone of this Order. We cannot be cowards and allow this virus to infect us any longer. This virus needs to be deleted like Spam Mail! Courage is needed to speak up and say what is on our minds. Complaining to each other will solve absolutely nothing. The greatest power in the world is pen and paper. USE IT! Compromising is out of the question. Leaders you have the power to make a change. If members cannot follow the programs then get rid of them. You cannot voice any opinions sitting at home and complaining. Attend your meetings and be a part of the positive so we can eliminate the negative.
Many people have a fear of losing friendship if they voice their opinions during meetings. When you are conducting business, friendship takes a back seat. You have to be ambitious if you are pursuing leadership. Be persistent in all your efforts. When you are a threat you are always the target.
The mentality of new members today seems to be how soon can I get in and how soon can I take over. If we start at the door and work our way to the East it is well worth the wait. We have members currently that have never taken the time to thoroughly read the Constitution or the Ritual. But if you ask them when the next Ball or White Party is they have the answer.
Pride goes before destruction and a haughty spirit before a fall.
You will find many leaders that are lost in the clouds over their Egos. People place them on pedestals. But you are not a leader when your members don’t respect you. Leadership is defined by results and not attributes. If you really want to know the true character of a person just observe how they treat their subordinates and not their equals.
We need to stay encouraged and promote encouragement. Problems are not stop signs they are guidelines.
If we portray a lack of confidence we will not succeed and potentially fail. We cannot worry about popularity or disapproval of others. This is about regaining control of this Great Masonic Order. We would all prosper if we learned to stop trying to change the rules of the game and play the hand we are dealt.
You already know that people outside of the Order already consider us as devil worshipers or members of a cult. WE NEED TO EDUCATE in the Communities what we are all about. Show them that we are believers of GOD and our true sense of honor!
When we exhibit confidence in ourselves it earns the respect of others and our membership. We must stand tall and portray competence and empower ourselves with knowledge so we are able to educate new members.
Until we stop fighting amongst each other the enemy will always win. We have to learn the meaning of FAITH again. We are not our Brother or Sisters Keeper when we can’t stand the sight of each other. If we want peace and perseverance we must LET GO AND LET GOD!
In closing I ask that we all remember:
Ability is what you’re capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it.
Please do not hesitate to contact Grand Princess Captain R. Lucille Samuel at firstname.lastname@example.org
January 6, 2015 the Paul Revere-Sam Adams time capsule discovered last month was unveiled at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. According to HISTORY here is how that all went down.
Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick and other dignitaries were on hand to witness the opening of one of the nation’s oldest time capsules yesterday evening (January 6) in the Art of the Americas wing at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (MFA). Standing in front of a large painting of George Washington on horseback in 1776 (Thomas Sully’s “The Passage of the Delaware”), museum conservator Pam Hatchfield removed the screws from the corners of the brass box and carefully extracted its contents using tools including a porcupine quill and a dental pick that belonged to her grandfather.
Last month,Hatchfield spent nearly seven hours extracting the time capsule from the cornerstone of the Massachusetts State House. The brass box, which had turned green with age, measured 5.5 by 7.5 by 1.5 inches (a little smaller than a cigar box) and weighed 10 pounds. Its contents were not exactly a surprise: The original time capsule had been removed in 1855, during some repairs to the building; its contents were cleaned and documented before it was placed back in the cornerstone. But even after X-raying and examining the box, Hatchfield and her colleagues had no way of knowing what kind of condition its contents would be in, or the details of what lay inside.
Among the first items removed from the time capsule yesterday were folded newspapers, which Hatchfield stated were in “amazingly good condition.” There were five of them in all, including copies of the Boston Bee and Boston Traveller. Then came some 23 coins, in denominations of “half-cent,” penny, quarter, dime and half-dime. Some dated to the mid-19th century, while others were from 1795; a so-called “Pine Tree Shilling” dated to 1652. In addition, the box contained a copper medal with George Washington’s image and the words “General of the American Army”; a seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; and a title page from the Massachusetts Colony Records. Finally, Hatchfield removed a silver plate with fingerprints still on it, bearing an inscription dedicating the State House cornerstone on the 20th anniversary of American independence in July 1795.
“This cornerstone of a building intended for the use of the legislative and executive branches of the government of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was laid by his Excellency Samuel Adams, Esquire, governor of the said Commonwealth,” Michael Comeau, executive director of the Massachusetts Archives, read from the plate’s inscription to the assembled crowd, adding “How cool is that.” The plate is thought to be the work of Paul Revere, the master metalsmith and engraver turned Revolutionary hero who placed the time capsule alongside Adams and William Scollay, a colonel in the Revolutionary War.
It took nearly an hour to remove all the items from the time capsule. MFA conservators will now work on preserving the contents, which will probably go on display at the museum later this year. According to Massachusetts Secretary of State William Galvin, the time capsule will eventually be returned to the cornerstone, but it’s not certain whether state officials will add any new objects to it before burying it again.
Of he engraved silver plate, Hatchfield declared, “And it has fingerprints on it,”
According to the Associated Press, the oldest coin in the box was a 1652 “Pine Tree Schilling.”
Michael Comeau, executive director of the Massachusetts Archives and Commonwealth Museum, tells the AP that he has seen the coins offered for as much as $75,000, but given the association with Revere and Adams, the value could be much higher.
And not to be undone, attending the the ceremony was also Paul Revere IV, the great, great, great, great, great grandson of Paul Revere.
With permission The Beehive is proud to reprint Brother Steven Adkins essay on Freemasonry and Black Nationalism. This essay comes from Brother Adkins thought provoking website – Laws of Silence.
Brother Adkins hails from Florida but now is residing in France. Adkins has opened my eyes to the realization of the effect of religion on Freemasonry and also the effect of Freemasonry on religion.
Actually to carry this thought a little further, when we choose a philosophy of life, that philosophy really has many different components. We choose a religious philosophy, a fraternal philosophy, and a way of life to be lived here on earth, a political philosophy, a medical and healing philosophy and so forth. So when we choose a political party to represent our thought, when we choose a religion and/or a denomination within a religion, when we choose a doctor, when we choose a civil society to associate with, we are making the choices that integrate themselves into what we are, our essence.
Many would segregate each choice into separate boxes existing wholly on their own. I am more inclined to believe that all our choices on living life tend to be intertwined and interrelated. And nothing has more strengthened this conviction in me than Adkins essay below.
Agree or disagree with what Adkins has put forth here, but in the process realize how one choice, one direction you choose may influence the next choice that you make.
Freemasonry and Black Nationalism
The United States is a dizzying kaleidoscope of religious belief and practice, a situation rooted in the country’s origins — in part, anyway — as a haven for religious dissidents. Many colonists had been harassed, imprisoned and put to death for their religious beliefs, yet instead of changing their ways, they chose to pack up everything and risk a long and perilous sea voyage, to set up home in a strange and vast land filled with a large aboriginal population, completely mysterious to them. They were true believers, ready to risk it all for their faith.
The circumstances that encouraged emigration to North America ensured that the colonists included a large percentage of devout, dedicated and spiritually innovative believers. While some of their theological nuances may seem a bit nit-picky to our minds, back then, innovation was a big deal and deadly serious.
But not all of these strangers arrived by choice. African slaves first arrived in Jamestown in 1607, the same year the colony was founded.
The U.S. continues to this day to be innovative and unusually fervent in matters of religion, compared to say, a lot of Europe. Something like 90% of Americans express some sort of belief in some sort of supreme being. 50% attend some kind of religious service on a regular basis. In terms of the sheer number of new sects and splinter groups sociologists refer to as New Religious Movements (NRMs), I can’t think of another country in the world, except maybe Brazil, with such diversity. Some of these American sects, such as the Mormons and the Jehovah’s Witnesses, have gone on to become accepted around the world. The US even had a Mormon presidential candidate in 2012. That would never happen in Europe, at least as things stand today. For one thing, countries such as Germany and France afford NRMs much less tolerance under the law than in the U.S. The nourishing effect of tax-free religion cannot be underestimated. NRMs can become mini-Empires: the Church of Jesus Christ (Mormons), the Unification Church (Moonies), Scientology, even the Nation of Islam.
The religious landscape has diversified even further up until the present time. It’s not a only a historical phenomenon, but an ongoing process. Take for example the Five Percenters (aka the Five-Percent Nation or the Nation of Gods and Earths). Founded in 1964, they trace their origin to dissidents from the Nation of Islam (founded 1930), in turn rooted in the Moorish Science Temple (1913). The Branch Davidians, led by David Koresh, are well known as a result of the standoff with Federal authorities at their compound in Waco that resulted in the fiery death of nearly 80 people; they broke away from Davidian Seventh-Day Adventists in 1955; these latter left the Seventh-Day Adventists circa 1930. And so on.
A long-standing interest
My interest in all this dates to my adolescence. In my last years of High School I got into a kind of comparative religions kick. I wasn’t a seeker, merely fascinated. Me and a guy named T— Chung (whose Chinese immigrant parents left oranges on their kitchen counter before a Buddha statuette topped with a red light bulb) used to go around every Sunday and check out a new denomination. We only got around to Catholic Mass and various mainline Protestant sects. There was a long Pentecostal service we went to, which was a somewhat frightening experience. Speaking in tongues (glossolalia) and being Slain in the Spirit (video) are impressive things to witness, especially from someone whose own religious background was a rather stodgy Anglicanism.
Somewhat earlier than this, I’d studied Wicca and read the Tarot; spent hours on the Ouija board and read all I could about mythology, religion, occult lore and practical magick. Those stark black paperback edition of The Satanic Bible and The Necronomicon were more than books to me, but totemic objects, radiating power on the bookshelf. Hell, I was only what, 13?
Later, I would attend Christian Science Lectures and visit a Mosque in Atlanta, much to the joy of the Muslims there, especially the young ones. I spent a week in a Sri Lankan monastery in rural West Virginia, doing Vipassana meditation and chanting four hours a day. I was blessed by a curandero in a corn field in northern Guatemala and witnessed fertility rituals on a hilltop outside of Chichicastenango and in an eerie incense-filled cave near Santa Cruz del Quiche. In 2000, I became a Freemason. I eventually took the Royal Arch and the 32 Scottish Rite Degrees. I am also a minister in the Universal Life Church, if you’re looking to get married….
Academically, I did a double major, studying History and the Humanities. One of my concentrations was in Religious Studies. I got a solid foundation in the Bible, the Gospels, Islam and Buddhism. I traveled to Israel, Jordan and Egypt. I would later audit a course in ancient mystery religions at Cornell University. When it came time to do my Senior research paper, my topic was once again religion: Religion and the Afro-American Identity. Slavery had torn people from their homes and thrust people of different languages and cultures together; white racism lumped all these different peoples together under degrading epithets: the brutal reality of “the peculiar institution” was made even harsher by the fact of having been effectively shorn of an identity as something other than as a slave or an inferior sub-species of human being. My starting point was that as African-Americans had been thoroughly deracinated by the African Diaspora, many came to feel that spiritual regeneration had to be based upon creating a new collective identity.
Africa became a mythical place, dreamed of but out of reach. Some African-Americans, from Virginia to Brazil, longed to return to what eventually became an idealized Promised Land, a Black Zion. To make a long story short, in my paper I proposed that several Afrocentric NRMs began with re-establishing an identity; in the cases I dealt with in my paper, these were “Asiatics”, “Moors”, “Original Men”, and Yorubans. I focused on the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League (UNIA), Moorish Science, the Nation of Islam and Oyotunji, an African village in the South Carolina organized along traditional Yoruban lines. It is an interesting place: a polygamous King, traditional religion, the works. In 1992 I was able to visit and interview the King’s deputy at the time, driving up to the village from Florida in the company of my good friend and collaborator, The Gid, your co-host here on Laws of Silence.
I didn’t produce a very good paper; in hindsight, the B I received was generous.
The immediate impetus of this current post was an article I read about Jay-Z and the Five Percenters. Having some (but very limited) familiarity with the subject, I wasn’t satisfied with the one-dimensional reports I read, so I decided to read Michael Muhammad Knight’s excellent book on the topic. Other books followed and my interest was rekindled in my old paper. In that first paper, I think my instincts were sound, but the exposition was lacking; I decided to revisit the topic with the benefit of more research under my belt.
I will cover some of the same ground here but will take a slightly different approach. I propose that an under-recognized influence on African-American NRMs is Freemasonry (which wasn’t even mentioned in my original thesis). We find its influence in the organization and trappings of the UNIA, the Koran of Moorish Science, the parables of the Nation of Islam and the “science” of the Five Percent. We will also look at its surprising appearance in Rastafarianism.
Prince Hall and Freemasonry
My story begins with a man named Prince Hall. Prince Hall may have been born in Barbados or New England in 1735. We do know he was a slave at age eleven, but was a free man by 1770. Somewhere along the line he had the good fortune to have received an education, for he was literate; combined with his natural intelligence and energy, he was to become an effective community leader, organizer, educator and abolitionist. He was also the founder of what is now known as Prince Hall Masonry. In seeking to become a Freemason, Hall assumed that black Americans would benefit from the blessings of Liberty promised in Revolutionary rhetoric. Not so. In 1775 he and 14 other free black men petitioned a Boston Masonic Lodge for membership and were refused. They then successfully petitioned a military Lodge under the aegis of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. These men then founded African Lodge No. 1, which was later issued a charter by the Grand Lodge of England as African Lodge No. 459. Hall went on to organize Lodges in Boston, Philadelphia and Providence, RI.
In Becoming African in America: Race and Nation in the Early Black Atlantic, historian James Sidbury writes that Prince Hall Lodges “asserted emotional, mythical and genealogical links to the continent of Africa and its peoples.” (74) Hall himself was also vociferous supporter of the Back-to-Africa Movement (presenting a plan to the Massachusetts Senate in 1773), black unity and economic independence. Hall and his brother Masons issued another call for immigration in 1787, stressing the need for the movement to be led by black people. He stressed that black independence was beneficial for the moral and economic improvement of blacks and whites alike; he justified emigration and stressed an “African” identity, as opposed to any one particular African ethnicity — as the name of their Lodges indicate. Hall’s emigration efforts led nowhere, which led him to concentrate his later efforts on education, Freemasonry and abolition.
Emigrating to Africa to establish colonies continued to be a literal goal, but alongside the concrete planning for such a venture, a spiritual meaning of the phrase “Back-to-Africa” took root and began to flourish in the Masonic Lodge.
In Black Pilgrimage to Islam, sociologist Robert Dannin writes:
Evidence of the struggle between churched and unchurched ideologies is also reﬂected in the history of the Prince Hall Masonic lodges where Ethiopianist and Arabist proponents clashed repeatedly. Ethiopianism had roots in the missionary experience as a quasi-biblical justification for emigration. It originated in the work of Martin Delany and came to rest in Marcus Garvey’s familiar scenario of a pure African nation. Though radical in style, it belonged to and constituted a theology of redemption. Arabism, on the other hand, was a representation or Islam constructed out of fragmentary knowledge. Like other folk traditions and vestigial religious beliefs it was discordant to the ears of churchmen.
Dannin argues that “Freemasonry was…integral to the construction of black civil society in colonial America” and that “the red Fez [of Moors and Shriners, for example] survives as an artifact” of the colonial black merchant class, bound by Masonry and struggling for abolition. Simply put, the Lodge nurtured the two tendencies that will appear in this informal paper: the Ethiopianist trend (such as in Rastafarianism) and the Arabist trend (in the Nation of Islam, for example).
Freemasonry and other fraternal organizations were certainly an important feature of African-American civil life. A book entitled Social and mental traits of the Negro; research into the conditions of the Negro race in southern towns, a study in race traits, tendencies and prospects (1910) lists literally dozens of fraternal groups in the South alone.
Martin Delaney: The first Black Nationalist?
Prince Hall was a direct influence on Marcus Garvey, as was Martin R. Delany. Some have argued Delany was the first Black Nationalist. Abolitionist, writer, journalist, philosopher, inventor….he was also one of the first three blacks admitted to Harvard Medical School and the first black field officer in the U.S. Army, obtaining the rank of major. In 1853 he wrote a short book entitled The Origin and Objects of Ancient Freemasonry: Its Introductioninto the United States, And Legitimacy among Colored Men. The book posits an Ethiopian origin for Freemasonry and places several Biblical events there; it is truly an Afrocentric text. As for emigration, he had already written his first book proposing mass emigration, perhaps to the West Indies or South America, in 1852. In 1854 he led the National Emigration Convention and read his Political Destiny of the Colored Race on the American Continent; this work is considered to be one of the urtexts of Black Nationalism.
Delany traveled to Liberia in 1859 to look into the possibility of settlement; he stayed nine months and signed a treaty for settling “unused” land in exchange for bringing skilled workers to the region, but white missionaries undermined his plans and the outbreak of the American Civil War put an end to them. He later sought an appointment as Consul General to Liberia. As Reconstruction began to be curbed and whites successfully began limiting the voting rights of blacks in the South, a group of African-Americans in Charleston again took up plans for emigration; in 1877, they formed the Liberia Exodus Joint Stock Steamship Company, with Delany as chairman of the finance committee. A year later the company purchased a ship called the Azor for the voyage. Delany was president of the board that organized the voyage but he withdrew in 1880 to concentrate on supporting his family.
This was his last involvement with emigration before his death.
Marcus Garvey and the UNIA
Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) continued to develop plans to help African-Americans migrate to Liberia, sending a delegation there in 1923 to scope out the situation and make a survey of potential settlement areas, a project supported by the Liberian government. Apparently Liberia was going to lease land to the UNIA for one dollar per acre. The plan fell through, however, and the Liberian government cut a better deal with the Firestone Rubber Company.
When Garvey died in 1940, James R. Stewart was elected to head the UNIA. In 1949 he moved to Liberia, where he became a citizen. The Parent Body of the UNIA was located there until Stewart’s Death in 1964. Liberian President William Tubman became Potentate and Supreme Commissioner of the UNIA in 1954 and was a close friend of Stewart. Tubman was President of Liberia from 1944 to 1971 and became known as the “Father of Modern Liberia”. He was also a Prince Hall Mason. He was succeeded by his VP since 1952, William Tolbert, who was also Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Liberia.
From the beginning, Liberian society quickly developed into three classes: settlers with European-African lineage, who came to be known as Americo-Liberians; freed slaves from slave ships and the West Indies; and indigenous native people from the existing tribes already living in the territory. Liberia was dominated by a single political party for over 130 years, the True Whig Party, based in large part on the American Whigs, the precursor to the Republican Party in the years after the American Revolution and before the Civil War. The Liberian Whigs were almost entirely Americo-Liberians, and top government officials were uniformly Freemasons. By the 1970s, there were seventeen lodges at work in the country under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free & Accepted Masons of the Republic of Liberia, with approximately 1,000 members, and the longstanding sentiment of the tribal population was that decisions about the nation were all made secretly behind Masonic closed doors.
This clique of about a dozen Americo-Liberian families dominated the country’s politics and excluded indigenous Africans and descendants of slaves from points other than the U.S. This hegemony and the exclusion of indigenous Africans from the Lodge meant that when a coup d’état was staged by Samuel Doe in 1980, the Lodge was targeted alongside the existing political regime; the hand-in-glove relationship between Lodge and State is personified by William R. Tolbert, Jr. who was both President of Liberia and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Liberia at the time of the coup. Naturally, the Lodge was outlawed by Doe in 1980.
During the turmoil and violence which has taken place since the coup in 1980, the Grand Lodge building was virtually destroyed and fell into ruin, eventually becoming the home of thousands of squatters. The squatters were evicted in 2005 and the Lodge is apparently currently rebuilding their Lodge building….and their influence.
Henry McNeil Turner
Liberia (and to some degree Sierra Leone) was the focus of the American Back-to-Africa movement. Garvey — and his inspiration, Delany — would both travel there. Henry McNeal Turner, the dynamic bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, traveled there four times in the 1890’s. He encouraged emigration and organized conferences in Africa for that purpose. He also taught that God was black, something Garvey’s later African Orthodox Church would teach and a fundamental tenet of Moorish Science, the NOI and the Five Percenters.
Turner was also a Prince Hall Mason, joining while living in Washington, D.C. between 1862 and 1863. His decision to join, however, was not universally approved of within the AME Church, which had a strong anti-Masonic Faction despite the fact that the Church’s founder, Richard Allen, was a Prince Hall Mason himself. Allen had previously established the Free Africa Society with Absalom Jones, circa 1792.
Jones went on to found the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, part of the Episcopal Church, in Philadelphia. He too, was a Mason. Prince Hall personally founded African Lodge No. 1 of Philadelphia; Jones was Master of this Lodge and Allen was its treasurer. This African Lodge was the first to be granted a charter by African Lodge No. 459 in Boston; in granting the Philadelphia Lodge a charter, Prince Hall began its evolution into a separate, “black” Freemasonry. Today, Prince Hall Masonry (PHM) enjoys mostly friendly relations with its “white” counterparts, which have overcome questions of “regularity” and now recognize Prince Hall Masonry, with various degrees of visiting rights. Only eight states have resisted recognition. All of these are located in the Deep South and follow the contours of the Confederacy, except for West Virginia.
According to The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, Vol I:
In 1922….Hodge Kirnon stated that “there is no indication that Garvey meant [the UNIA] to be anything more than a fraternal order.” …. Amy Jacques Garvey later recalled that Garvey became a Mason “through the influence of John E. Bruce and Dr. [F. W.] Ellegor [but] he did not attend Masonic meetings, he was always too busy, so the connection dropped.” Moreover, she disclosed that UNIA chapters operated quite freely within the ranks of black fraternities.
During the final four years of his life, Garvey turned even more emphatically toward the Masonic ideal based on secret knowledge. With the defeat of Ethiopia in the Italo-Ethiopian War of 1935…. Garvey revised dramatically his previous estimates of what political movements alone could be expected to accomplish. Thus, he viewed as problematic the absence of “masonry in his [the Negro’s] political ideals,” noting that “there is nothing secret in what he is aiming at for his own hope of preservation.” Garvey was alluding to the evolution of the fraternal idea from its earlier craft stage into a potent political vehicle, one based on the organization of secret revolutionary brotherhoods.
From the start, the UNIA shared numerous features with fraternal benevolent orders. The UNIA’s governing Constitution and Book of Laws held the same status and function as Freemasonry’s Book of Constitutions and Book of the Law. The UNIA’s titular “potentate” was clearly analogous to the “imperial potentate” of the Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, or black Shriners. The High Executive Council of the UNIA and ACL reflected the Imperial Council of the black Shriners and the Supreme Council of Freemasonry in general. The elaborate and resplendent public displays by the UNIA, particularly during its annual conventions, drew upon the example of the black Shriners and other fraternal groups …. Other features shared with fraternal orders included solemn oaths and binding pledges, special degrees of chivalry (such as the Cross of African Redemption, Knight of the Sublime Order of the Nile, and Knight of the Order of Ethiopia) …. (lxi-lxii)
Like any radical movement, the UNIA faced internal challenges from members who didn’t find the organization radical enough. A mere five years after its founding, a group of (primarily) Caribbean socialists within the UNIA founded the African Blood Brotherhood for African Liberation and Redemption (ABB). Just as the UNIA worked within Prince Hall Lodges, the ABB tried — and failed — to operate within the UNIA. The ABB became highly critical of Garvey but failed to oust him, so they left the UNIA, eventually dissolving in the 1920’s, its members merging into the Workers Party of America, the legal name of the Communist Party in the U.S. In a 1922 report to the Comintern, ABB co-founder Claude McKay, a Jamaican-American writer and poet, speaks positively of the UNIA, though criticizing its capitalist ventures. McKay suggested that a series of “masonic degrees” be utilized to create a vanguard from among the advanced members of the organization (It is unclear if McKay is speaking here of the ABB or not). He states that these degrees would act as a
….lure to draw membership for the organization and as an inspiration to studies and activities on the part of the membership. They may be seven in all, with the seventh degree reserved for those who become truly class-conscious, and the lower degrees forming a series of steps towards the seventh on the basis of development toward the class-conscious ideal. (7) A Report on the American “Negro Problem” for the Communist International, 1922
If I may be permitted a bit of whimsy, I find it a bit poetic that in October, 1919, one George Tyler attempted to assassinate Garvey with a .38 caliber revolver. A Tyler is an officer of a Masonic Lodge, charged with, among other things, guarding the door during communication in order to keep the uninitiated from entering. Coincidence….of course.
Noble Drew Ali
Noble Drew Ali and Moorish Science
The Canaanite Temple was founded in 1913, one year before the UNIA. It was based in Newark and after some internal conflict, moved to Chicago in 1926, where it was re-named the Moorish Science Temple of America (MSTA). It represented a political alternative to the UNIA, but it was a more overtly spiritual movement — its politics and spirituality wend hand in hand. While Garvey’s affirmation of a black Jesus may have seemed scandalous, it didn’t go as far as Moorish Science theology and that of its descendants. Garvey said God was black. The Five Percenters say that the Black Man is God!
Drew claimed to have received this “lost” section of the Holy Koran from an Egyptian high priest of magic, who he claimed had trained him in mystical practices and saw in him the reincarnation of the prophets Jesus, Buddha and Muhammad.
Moorish Science — Circle 7 Logo
The identity of the African-American was the foundation of Ali’s teachings; liberation was only possible for the “Negro” after understanding his true identity, which is what? Moorish. Specifically, Moroccan. Ali used the word “Asiatic” to designate African-Americans.
Although ostensibly Islamic, Ali drew from many sources, including Theosophy, Christianity, Buddhism, Taoism, Gnosticism….and Freemasonry. The Masonic influences on the Koran are most evident in Chapter Five, in which working tools are discussed. Although they are presented as the tools of a carpenter and not a mason, many of the tools are the same and those that are not still have explanations which are perfectly coherent with Masonic teaching:
These tools remind me of the ones we handle in the workshop of the mind where things were made of thought and where we build up character.
We use the square to measure all our lines, to straighten out the crooked places of the way, and make the corners of our conduct square.
We use the compass to draw circles around our passions and desires to keep them in the bounds of righteousness.
We use the axe to cut away the knotty, useless and ungainly parts and make the character symmetrical.
We use the hammer to drive home the truth, and pound it in until it is a part of every part.
We use the plane to smooth the rough, uneven surfaces of joint, and block, and board that go to build the temple for the truth.
The chisel, line, the plummet and the saw all have their uses in the workshop of the mind.
And then this ladder with its trinity of steps, faith, hope and love; on it we climb up to the dome of purity in life.
And on the twelve step ladder, we ascend until we reach the pinnacle of that which life is spent to build the Temple of Perfected Man.
This is straight up Masonic language and doctrine, even using numbers with heavy Masonic symbolism: 3, 7 and 12. The Moors acknowledge this Masonic link. They claim, however, that it was Freemasonry who based their doctrine upon the beliefs and practices of the original Moors at some point in the foggy past. This is reminiscent Mormon teachings about their Temple Endowment Ceremonies.
The Mormons have a long and fractious relationship with Masonry. Joseph Smith became a Mason and during his group’s sojourn in Nauvoo, Illinois, urged his followers to join so that they might infiltrate the Lodges and use them to further their aims — much like the Bavarian Illuminati founded by Adam Weishaupt in 1776. Smith was later murdered by a mob while in jail following accusations (true, as it turns out) of polygamy and intended to set himself up as a theocratic king. Just before he was shot, Smith is said to have given the Masonic sign and call of distress. In any event, those Endowment ceremonies are clearly modeled on and adapted from Masonic ritual; one only needs to compare the texts — and the chronological order in which they appeared. The Masonic rituals are historically anterior to the Mormon ceremonies, but the Mormons use the same arguments as the Moor men to explain their similarities: the Masonic rituals are garbled versions of the Mormon rituals, learned sometime in the distant past. Masons preserve the Mormon truth, but in an incomplete and distorted form.
Some claim that Noble Drew Ali was a Freemason and a Shriner; others vehemently deny it. While it is quite possible, lack of evidence either way rules out any firm affirmation….or denial. The fact remains, however that Masonic language is in his version of the Koran. Question is, how did he come by it?
Peter Lamborn Wilson, aka Hakim Bey, writes a great essay on the history of MSTA which includes the following passage regarding Drew Ali’s debt to Freemasonry. I tried to pare it down to essentials, but it’s still a long citation. All apologies to Wilson:
The first deep source of Moorish Science is Masonry. Connections between Islam and Freemasonry may go back to the Crusades, to pacts between Templars and Ismailis (“Assassins”). Eighteenth-century Rosicrucians claimed sources in the Yemen for their alchemical wisdom. The freethinkers of the Enlightenment held favorable opinions of Islam, not because they understood it very well, but because it represented the antithesis of Christianity; “the enemy of my enemy is my friend.” Frederick II, Voltaire, Goethe, and Nietzsche all admired Islam; dandies as well as revolutionary Masons adopted the accountrements if the “wicked Turk.” If this Masonic reading of Islam can be called a misreading, nevertheless it contains a fortuitous element – an example of heresy acting as a means of cultural transfer. That is: an image of Islam (however distorted) had in fact moved from East to West and brought about cultural ferment. Much of its energy will be found within Masonry.
In 1876-7 some New York businessmen, all thirty-second degree or thirty-third degree Scottish Rite Masons, founded the Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine – the “Shriners.” They concocted a legend claiming initiations from a Grand Shaykh of Mecca, honors from the Ottoman Sultan Selim III, a charter from Adam Weishaupt of the Bavarian Illuminati, and links with the Bektashi Sufi Order. They bestowed the title “Noble” on themselves, wore fezzes, displayed a crescent moon and star with Egyptian ornaments (including the Great Pyramid), and founded lodges called “Mecca,” “Medina,” “Al Koran,” etc. Later Shriners found this esoteric mishmash embarrassing, repudiated the legend, devolved into a charitable fraternity, and saved their fezzes for parades and costume balls.
During the Great Columbian Exhibition in Chicago (1893), a world’s fair attended by numerous Eastern Religious figures (such as Swami Vivekananda), American blacks, claiming initiation from visiting Moslem dignitaries founded the Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order of Nobles of the Shrine (and its sister affiliate the Daughters of Isis) – black Shriners. Certain photographs exist of Noble Drew Ali in Egyptian Shriner gear; even his famous Napoleonic pose is Masonic, as are his title, headgear, and other favorite symbols. I have seen documents purporting to represent Moorish Masonry which may refer to the existence of an Adept Chamber within Moorish Science, mentioned in its Catechism.
According to my informant M. A. Ahari, Noble Drew Ali was “a Pythian Knight, a Shriner, a Prophet of the Veiled Realm, and, of course, a thirty-second degree Mason.” He suggests that Masonic “catechisms” may have been the model for the Moorish Catechism; one is reminded here of Joseph Smith and the Masonic influence on Mormonism, which has undergone a veiling and metamorphosis similar to that of the Masonic roots of Moorish Science.“Lost/Found Moorish Timelines in the Wilderness of North America”Suleiman and “Mohammedan Masonry”
The Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (the “Shriners”) was founded in New York in 1870 (Not 1876-7 as Wilson states). In 1872 they established their first Temple in New York City: Mecca Temple. The chief officer of the Temple was known as a “Potentate” (a title the UNIA later adopted).
The words “temple” and/or “mosque” are no longer used; this seems part of a general “de-mystification” of the Shrine, which changed its ponderous name in 2010 to Shriners International. They have also dropped the requirement that a man need be a Master Mason to apply.
The Shriner’s rituals and emblem were created by Walter Fleming, apparently based on notes taken at a performance witnessed by William J. Florence at a party given by an “Arabian diplomat” in Marseilles; after this performance (which he later reported seeing again in Cairo and Algiers), the spectators were initiated into some kind of secret society. True or not, it’s interesting that like the later African-American groups, authority is said to have derived directly from the Middle East. Despite any real connection to Islam, Shriners are still distinguished by the red fezzes they wear. These white Shriners were soon followed by a black group drawn from Prince Hall Masonry:
The Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order Nobles Mystic Shrine of North and South and Its Jurisdictions, Inc…..was established as an Imperial Council of Prince Hall Shriners on June 3, 1893, in Chicago, Illinois, by 13 Prince Hall Masons under the leadership of John George Jones….
The first annual session of the newly organized Imperial Council was held on September 25, 1901, in Newark, New Jersey, [where the Canaanite Temple was founded a decade later] it was here that a Constitution was formally adopted, establishing the fraternity as it is today….
After completing this article, or after I thought it was complete, I came across an article from 2011 entitled “Abdul Hamid Suleiman and the Origins of the Moorish Science Temple” by Patrick D. Bowen. Bowen has uncovered some newspaper articles that suggest Noble Drew Ali might have been influenced by one Abdul Hamid Suleiman; although he gave no names, Drew Ali himself said he received his knowledge from an Egyptian. Here’s a summary of Bowen’s work.
Abdul Hamid Suleiman was first mentioned in the press in August, 1922 as a result of his appearance at the African-American Masonic convention held that month in Washington, D.C. He went before the leadership of the Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (A.E.A.O.N.M.S.) — the African-American Shriners — and demanded they come under the aegis of the “Mecca Medina temple of Ancient Free and Operative Masons from 1 to 96 degrees,” or “true Shrine.” He claimed to have incorporated this Lodge in N.Y.C. The Shriners turned him down. Suleiman may have been a member of the French Rite of Misraïm, which no longer exists as a separate Rite, but which at one point had 96 degrees and is one of the rites of so-called “Egyptian” Masonry (the other being the Rite of Memphis).
In 1923 an article in the press appeared describing Abdul Hamid Suleiman and his claim to have derived his authority from Mecca and that it was his mission to spread Islam among African-Americans. The article notes that a mosque had already been established in Newark, N.J. Suleiman had described his movement as “Mohammedan Masonry,” a movement equally Islamic and Masonic. Bowen believes that it is quite possible that Suleiman influenced Drew Ali; he speculates that Ali may even have been a member of Suleiman’s movement.
In later contact with the press Suleiman presented himself as a Muslim from Khartoum and “head of all Masonic degrees in Mecca”. Although Suleiman’s claims are dubious, Bowen did find a lodge with the name Mecca Medina Temple, established on Feb. 4, 1910, in N.Y.C. Among the incorporators were a Robert B. Mount and a Dr. Prince de Solomon.
Although it cannot be proven without a doubt, it would appear that Suleiman and de Solomon were the same person. A “Mecca Medina Temple of A.F. & A.M.” filed for incorporation on July 15, 1920 in Youngstown, Ohio. A January, 1920 census report lists a Dr. Prince de Solomon in Mercer, Pennsylvania — 30 miles from Youngstown. This is quite possibly the same Dr. Prince de Solomon who had helped found the N.Y.C. Mecca Medina Temple ten years earlier. In addition to their names and Suleiman’s claim to have founded a lodge in N.Y.C. with same name as one founded by de Solomon, de Solomon was described in the 1920 census as a black, Arabic-Speaking Egyptian, whose occupation was “minister”. Pretty much how Suleiman described himself. Both men used the title of “Dr.” While none of this is proof perfect, there are too many similarities to dismiss it out of hand. I believe they are one and the same person.
In 1927 a newspaper reports that one “Dr. Abdull Hamid Sulyman,” claimed that the only true Shrine came out of Mecca and required conversion to Islam. We also learn the same year, that he’d been working as a fortune teller and was accused of swindling a client; he claimed to have “qualified as a professor of mystic and occult sciences in a university under the auspices of the Mohammedan faith in Khartum [sic].” Recall that Ali claimed to have been instructed and recognized by an Egyptian “high priest of Magic”; was he referring to Suleiman? Khartoum is now in the Republic of Sudan but was at that time, and from its origin, considered to be a part of Egypt.
Oddly enough, there were at least eight other African-Americans advertising themselves in New York as Islam-connected spiritual advisers — with the title “Mohammedan Scientist” being most common appellation. The idea of spiritual knowledge as a kind of science is something reiterated in the Nation of Islam and its offshoot, the Five Percent Nation. In an age when America’s rapid scientific progress was whole-heartedly embraced by a great swath of the American people, “science” became something of a corollary to faith. Christian Science, Moorish Science, Scientology, Nation of Islam mythology, not to mention various UFO cults; all of them did not simply teach spiritual principles, they were “dropping science”.
In 1928 we again hear of Suleiman as someone who had “won notoriety as the founder of the Oriental Branch of the Masonic Order.” In 1929, one “Prince Abdul Hamid Sulyman of Khartum, Egypt, priest of Mecca” — note the use of the title “Prince” — appeared as a speaker at the banquet of “Grand Orient of Ancient, Free and Accepted Scottish Rite Masons of Union Faith.” In 1934, an “A.H. Sulyman” is listed as an officer and past master of the Atma Lodge A.F. & O.M., which was connected to a Mecca Chapter O.E.S.
After 1928, Suleiman disappears from the newspapers.
Concurrent with his Masonic activities, Suleiman was promoting Islam among African-Americans and for that purpose a mosque for his group had been started in….Newark. The name of Suleiman’s movement was the “Caananites Temple” [sic]. His followers included Muslim immigrants and he claimed several mosques existed.
The name “Canaanite Temple” is evocative because it was in fact the original name of Noble Drew Ali’s Moorish Science Temple….in Newark. Several of the Moors’ own founding legends mesh with what we know about Suleiman. One says that after founding the Canaanite Temple in 1913, in 1918 Drew Ali faced competition from an unnamed “Arab immigrant” who “appeared in Newark and professed orthodox Islam among African Americans. His efforts interfered with Noble Drew Ali’s work, and a conflict resulted in the breakup of his first temple.” As a result, Ali relocated to Chicago and established a temple there in 1919.
Another story is even more explicit, stating that the Canaanite Temple was established in Newark by Drew Ali in 1913 with the help of one “Dr. Suliman”. They fought over leadership and split in 1916. In 1925 Drew Ali and his followers went to Chicago.
Going further, given the suspicions that Wallace Fard and Elijah Muhammad were associated in some way with Drew Ali’s group, is it possible that there is a link between Suleiman and the two central figures of the early Nation of Islam?
Can we completely rule out the possibility that it was Suleiman who was influenced by Drew Ali, not the other way around?
Whatever its precise origins, Moorish science attracted a lot of Garveyites and ex-Garveyites. Chapter 48 of the Holy Koran even identifies Marcus Garvey as who? John the Baptist….with Noble Drew Ali as Jesus:
In these modern days there came a forerunner of Jesus, who was divinely prepared by the great God-Allah and his name is Marcus Garvey, who did teach and warn the nations of the earth to prepare to meet the coming Prophet; who was to bring the true and divine Creed of Islam, and his name is Noble Drew Ali who was prepared and sent to this earth by Allah….
The Moors were attracted to the nationalism of the UNIA and were inspired by its Back-to-Africa program. After the failure of the UNIA’s emigration plans, it appears that “Back-to-Africa” became more symbolic than literal; not a migration, but a mindset. No group after the UNIA proposed emigration on the scale that Garvey, Delany and Hall had proposed. The UNIA’s Black Star line was created both for transporting people back to Africa and for commercial ventures. The establishment of black-owned businesses and economic development were key features of the UNIA’s program. They saw it as a key to financial independence and thus, liberation of both body and mind. The Moors and the Nation of Islam would later put this into practice as well, but their nation wasn’t to be found in Africa, but North America.
The UNIA’s motto “One God, One Aim, One Destiny”, was derived from the influence of one Dusé Ali. Another Ali! Dusé Ali was an Egyptian-born British actor and journalist. He was also a Muslim, a Black Nationalist and Pan-Africanist. He was to exert considerable influence over Marcus Garvey, who wrote for Ali’s newspaper, the African Times and Orient Review. Ali later returned the favor, briefly writing for the UNIA’s Negro World (fear of a black planet?) after leaving Britain for good in 1921. He later lived, and died, in Nigeria.
Wallace Fard Muhammad
Wallace Fard Muhammad
In 1929 a mysterious fellow by the name of Wallace Fard Muhammad (presumed to have been born Wallace Dodd Ford) joined the Moorish Science Temple. After Drew Ali’s death, a struggle for control of the MSTA — and its considerable financial resources — erupted and Fard ended up fleeing Chicago for Detroit. On the 4th of July 1930, he founded his own group, the Nation of Islam. Like Noble Drew Ali, his ethnic background isn’t exactly clear, and he himself gave varying accounts. Was he a New Zealander of East Indian extraction? Were his parents Spanish? After he began to develop a following, he claimed to have come from Mecca, which is what his successor Elijah Muhammad taught. In any event, Fard again had to flee in 1933, this time as a result of an apparent ritual murder carried out by a member of the Nation. He returned but was re-arrested and again asked to leave. He left for good in 1934 and was never heard from again, though there is evidence he lived until the 1960’s and continued to maintain contact with Elijah Muhammad under the alias Muhammad Abdullah, an Ahmadi imam.
When asked about this rumor, Abdullah responded:
It is all right to say I am Fard Muhammad for Wallace [Warith] D. Muhammad. I taught him some lessons. But I am not the same person who taught Elijah Muhammad and I am not God.
Which could still be interpreted to mean he was indeed Fard….
Elijah Muhammad (né Poole)
The Nation of Islam
The NOI is based on Islam and a look at their basic tenets as set forth in the Five Pillars shows that the NOI is a lot closer to al-Islam than many Muslims would like to think. Many “regular” Muslims are bothered by the “extra-Quranic” teachings of the NOI — though it should be noted that there are numerous venerable commentaries and writings considered to contain prophetic traditions, known as hadith, and some are very controversial. There is also not an insignificant amount of animosity — in some countries at least — between the principal Muslim branches, schools and sects over doctrinal differences that are as significant as the “heresies” of the NOI.
What is most perhaps most offensive to “regular” Muslims are the NOI’s teachings about Fard. After he disappeared in 1934, his disciple Elijah Muhammad (né Poole) began teaching that Fard was the Mahdi, the redeemer of Islam who will rid the world of Evil, and that Elijah was his Messenger. He later began teaching that Fard was God, Allah incarnate. The NOI also began incorporating ideas from Theosophy into its teaching and there is clear evidence that Fard had encouraged his followers to study Jehovah’s Witnesses material. Some of this extra-Quranic material also demonstrates a familiarity with Masonic Lore.
Masonic legend centers on the story of Hiram Abiff, chief architect of Solomon’s Temple. One day, after a hard day’s work on the Temple, three ruffians, or “unworthy craftsmen”, confronted Abiff. They asked the architect to be shown the signs of recognition for Master Masons so that they might flash the signs and be able to work for higher wages. Thrice they demanded and thrice they were refused. So the three craftsman killed Hiram and hastily buried is body, marking the spot with a sprig of Acacia.
In the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, the three ruffians represent the white man, who asked for higher knowledge from the black man and were refused. Infuriated, they rose up against the “Original Man” (original because according to the NOI, whites were bred from blacks by a scientist named Yacub). The white rebels were defeated. The white man’s rebellion was akin to Lucifer’s rebellion against Allah; no coincidence that in the NOI, white men are referred to as “devils”. After this failed coup, the white man was led away in chains to exile in the caves of Europe. The Masons teachings, say the NOI, are corrupted history. A familiar pattern emerges: A group borrows from Masonry then tries to distance itself from the source by reversing the roles; their own ancient predecessors were the source of these legends and rituals and Masons are just repeating it wrong. The cable tow that binds Masons in brotherhood, says the NOI, recalls the chains as the devil was led away. The apron, they say, recalls the crude garment the devil was given to cover his shameless nakedness.
Lambert titled his essay “Lost/Found Moorish Timelines”; in one sense he is talking about what much of history has as its goal, that is to say the re-discovery the lost past and bringing it back into the realm of public knowledge. But it’s also a reference to the “lost” (some might say “stolen”) identity of African-Americans, which was “found” by Noble Drew Ali. This critical aspect of rediscovering the true identity of the African-American is why the NOI sometimes refers to itself as the “Lost-Found Nation of Islam.” It also brings to mind the concept of the “lost word” which is the central component of the Royal Arch Degrees.
Consulting my hefty copy of Mackey’s Encyclopedia, I looked for the entry on the Lost Word.
The Word, therefore, may be conceived to be the symbol of Divine Truth….the Word itself being then the symbol of Divine Truth, the narrative of its loss and the search for its recovery becomes a mythical symbol of the decay and loss of the true religion among the ancient nations….and of the attempts of the wise men, the philosophers, and priests, to find and retain it in their secret mysteries and initiations….(Boldface added)
Whether intentional or not, this concept of the Lost Word, which can arguably be said to represent one of the fundamental tenets of Freemasonry, is also a neat summation of exactly what Moorish Science and the Nation of Islam have attempted to do.
Jehovah’s Witnesses founder Charles Taze Russell also had a curious relationship with Freemasonry. Early versions of Witness literature carried a cross and crown motif exactly like the one used by a) Christian Science and b) Masonic Knights Templar. Some point to Russell’s grave as further proof of a connection — his tomb is a pyramid. It also features the cross and crown symbol. Russell wasn’t a Mason, though he once had this to say:
Do our Masonic friends understand something about the Temple, and being Knights Templars, and so on? We more.
I am very glad to have this particular opportunity of saying a word about some of the things in which we agree with our Masonic friends, because we are speaking in a building dedicated to Masonry, and we also are Masons. I am a Free Mason. I am a free and accepted Mason, if I may carry the matter to its full length, because that is what our Masonic brethren like to tell us, that they are free and accepted Masons. That is their style of putting it. Now I am a free and accepted Mason. I trust we all are. But not just after the style of our Masonic brethren. We have no quarrel with them. I am not going to say a word against Free Masons. In fact, some of my very dear friends are Masons, and I can appreciate that there are certain very precious truths that are held in part by our Masonic friends.
However, his sermon clarifies that he’s just using to Masonic lingo to riff on his own theology
Although I have never been a Mason…
It’s a curious bit of seemingly contradictory rhetoric, at times rambling, but as this 1913 sermon entitled “The Temple of God” demonstrates, at the very least, a fairly thorough knowledge of Freemasonry, if only to “deconstruct” its symbols and reapply them, redefined to fit his own spiritual system. Russell also seems to be playing the game that the Moors and the Mormons play, hinting that Freemasons are in possession of a corrupted truth gleaned from ancient Jehovah’s Witnesses. The statement that the Witnesses are Templars (in their Watchtowers?) is not just a whimsy. As I previously pointed out, the logo of a cross and crown features not only on early JW literature, but in the context of Masonic Templar degrees as well.
Garvey had been associated with the founding of the Independent Episcopal Church in 1921. Its first bishop, George Alexander McGuire, was from Antigua and was consecrated in Chicago under the aegis of the Syrian Orthodox Church by a remarkable figure named Réné Vilatte, in 1921. McGuire served as the chaplain for the UNIA for many years, leaving in 1924 when Garvey decided to move his group’s HQ to the West Indies. At this time he also changed the name of his church to the African Orthodox Church. The name reflects its Pan-African outlook, identifying with all Africans as opposed to one ethnicity, such as Ethiopians, Moors or Muslims, much like Hall’s “African” Lodge. The church paraded a black Madonna and Child though the streets of Harlem.
Part Byron, part Marquis de Sade, part Rasputin, McGuire’s mentor Vilatte led a life that would make for a great book, but it would hard to track; he changed churches like people change clothes. His religious affiliations were legion, so it’s no surprise he (like Fard) used Jehovah’s Witnesses literature for material. He once said of the Witnesses:
I do certainly believe that the ‘little flock’ [Jehovah’s Witnesses] will be an instrument by whom all the families of earth will be blessed; because all the churches are in a very poor situation and the world in great desolation.
Vilatte turned out to be a scandal on legs and he was a known associate of occultists, Rosicrucians and of course, Freemasons.
Enter the UFOs….
In a surprise to me, current NOI leader Louis Farrakhan relatively recently ordered that all higher level officers in the NOI must undergo auditing and study Dianetics until they have been certified “clear”. Surprising, perhaps, given that the founder of Scientology (1954) was prone to uttering some of the crudest racist commentary imaginable. Not surprising, perhaps, if you consider that NOI leaders will receive a ten percent cut of the fees for every Muslim they send to be audited. And ten percent of the fees involved would be a fairly handsome sum, seeing that becoming a “clear” can cost well over 100,000 dollars!
There is also an affinity between the NOI and Scientology in that they share a belief in UFO’s.
The Honorable Elijah Muhammad told us of a giant Mother Plane that is made like the universe, spheres within spheres. White people call them unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Ezekiel, in the Old Testament, saw a wheel that looked like a cloud by day but a pillar of fire by night. The Honorable Elijah Muhammad said that that wheel was built on the island of Nippon, which is now called Japan, by some of the Original scientists….It is made of the toughest steel. America does not yet know the composition of the steel used to make an instrument like it. It is a circular plane, and the Bible says that it never makes turns. Because of its circular nature it can stop and travel in all directions at speeds of thousands of miles per hour. He said there are 1,500 medium wheels in this Mother Wheel, which is a half mile by a half mile [800 m by 800 m]. This Mother Wheel is like a medium human-built planet. Each one of these medium planes carry three bombs.
“The Divine Destruction of America: Can She Avert It?” Louis Farrakhan, 1996
This Mother Plane will ultimately destroy America, but spare the black man — a kind of Space Age version of the Rapture. The faithful will be saved and the rest of the world destroyed.
This belief in being saved by a spaceship is not unique to the NOI. The Heaven’s Gate sect killed themselves en masse in order to free their souls to join a spaceship passing the earth, hidden in the tail of the Hale-Bopp comet. I’ve always assumed Parliament’s Mothership Connection was inspired, at least in part, by the Mother Plane story and the NOI’s teachings. In 2012, New Age-types headed towards Bugarach mountain in southwest France, expecting to be saved from the destruction attendant on the end of the Mayan calendar by a UFO either located within or coming to the mountain. They were disappointed, one supposes. Or perhaps not; the Jehovah’s Witnesses have had to revise their date for Armageddon on several occasions. Of course eschatological anticipation is not unique to the NOI or the Witnesses, but the centrality and intensity of the Witnesses’ belief that they would be spared from the impending apocalypse, not to mention their often confrontational proselytizing, would certainly have been an affinity between these two highly-disparaged, combative “cults”.
In most sects, such as Roman Catholicism or any number of TV evangelical groups, many followers live in poverty while their leaders live in opulence. The NOI, like the Moors before them — but on a much more successful level — have, or once had, substantial holdings: large companies, real estate, medium businesses and in the case of the NOI, even banks. I am not suggesting the NOI is a simply money scam; but it’s a fact that bears mentioning. Today the NOI has been greatly diminished since the son of Elijah Muhammad steered the NOI towards a reconciliation with Sunni Islam, prompting Farrakhan to take up the old name and ideology to form a schismatic group that continues to this day. The NOI, despite the historical record and the obvious similarities to Moorish Science, deny that they are an offshoot of the latter.
Another NRM to grow out of Marcus Garvey’s influence is Rastafarianism. Rastas teach that Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia is God and that Garvey was his prophet, his John the Baptist, much like the role the Moors claim for Garvey vis-à-vis Noble Drew Ali. Marcus was always the prophet, but for different Jesuses. Rastafarianism is not merely a derivation of Garveyism, though many Rastas, like many Moors, were Garveyites. Like the Moors, the Rastas drew from diverse sources: Caribbean folklore, western esotericism, AMORC and…Freemasonry.
In Dread Jesus, Wm. David Spencer argues that the Rasta use of the word “Jah” for God (or Yahweh) derives from Freemasonry. Spencer also reveals that Rastafarianism’s principle founder, Joseph Hibbert, was a member of the Great Ancient Brotherhood of Silence, or Ancient Mystic Order of Ethiopia, a Masonic Lodge. Author Gregory Stephens says Hibbert became a Mason in Costa Rica and returned to Jamaica preaching the divinity of Selassie. Hibbert’s roots were in the Ethiopian Baptist Church, which was founded by George Lisle in the 18th Century. Lisle was a Freed American slave who became a pastor and “America’s first missionary” — in Jamaica.
According to Doreen Morrison:
He developed a concern for his African brothers and sisters, determining that he would seek to enhance their lives by introducing a relevant contextual church able to speak holistically to their needs whether they were enslaved or free. To this end he and his followers co-opted the notion of ‘Ethiopianism’ and began to refer to themselves as Ethiopian Baptists.
This is certainly reflected in Hibbert’s Ethiopian outlook.
Spencer also writes that another key figure in the emergence of the Rasta movement, H. Archibald Dunkley, was also in the same Lodge. So it’s certainly possible his Masonic experiences had some influence on the movement’s beliefs; at the very least it shows that some Masonic beliefs held an attraction for these men at some point. That said, neither Holy Piby author Robert Athlyi Rogers (d. 1931) or “1st Rasta” Leonard Percival Howell (1898-1981) were Freemasons, as far as I can tell.
What is clear though is that the founders were nourished in the same esoteric traditions and milieu that fed the Moors and the Nation of Islam, reaching some similar conclusions along the way. As Bob Marley sang: “Mighty God is a living man.” Selassie in this case. For Elijah Muhammad, Fard. Then there was Clarence Smith.
Clarence 13X (“Allah”) and the Nation of Gods and Earths
The Allah Formerly Known As Clarence 13X
Just as Marcus Garvey begat Noble Drew Ali, who begat Wallace Fard Muhammad, who begat Elijah Muhammad, Elijah Muhammad begat Clarence 13X, né Clarence Smith, aka who? Allah.
The basic concept of Allah’s Five Percenters is that there is no “mystery God” in the sky, that God is in the here and now. Not just one man, but all men. All black men anyway.
From 1930 to 1934 W. Fard Muhammad gave a series of written lessons to Elijah Muhammad; these were collected into The Supreme Wisdom. The lessons taught that the world is divided into three categories: 85% of the population are the masses of the people who “are easily led in the wrong direction and hard to lead in the right direction”. The 85% are led by 10% of the people: rich “slave-makers” who manipulate the 85% with false religion, mass media and the control of information. The third group are the 5%, or “poor righteous teachers” of the people. The 5 Percenters, obviously, are this last group.
Their teachings are hard to summarize because Allah didn’t see his movement so much as a religion, but an ultra-democratic way of thinking, spiritual karate that could complete other religious practice. “Dropping science” is teaching 5 Percenter “doctrine”, working with an almost Kabbalistic “Supreme Alphabet” and “Supreme Numbers” — a kind of acrostic wisdom or urban gematria divided into 120 lessons, sometimes referred to as “degrees”. These are based on the Supreme Wisdom lessons of the NOI devised by Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad — not indoctrination but a method for reaching one’s own conclusions. Like the Masonic practice of a “Questions and Answers” session as part of the preparation for receiving a degree, the system involves a lot of rote memorization of formulaic phrases designed to impart moral and metaphysical lessons. When the Gods get together to talk about what the lessons mean, for example, they refer to it as “building”, a natural metaphor which also has a strong association with Masonic metaphor: the trowel, square, compasses, plumb line, the ashlars….
Five Percenter Compass Symbol, MST and NOI Merge
Like Muslims, the “Gods” are prohibited from eating pork. They have a tolerant attitude towards cannabis and other drugs, but heroin is prohibited. One’s word is bond. Other than that, it’s up to the God to say what his doctrine is. He is God after all. White men are still the devil, or were, it’s hard to say; Allah’s stance was evolving and current Five Percenters disagree on what it actually means.
The Gods adopt new names based on the supreme alphabet, usually with Allah at the end, i.e. Strength Allah. Black Muslims, of course, dropped their slave name for an “X”. Moors affixed El or Bey to their names.
Hip-Hop has been influenced a great deal by the Five Percenters and it shows up in the slang: G, word, represent, dropping science, the “zig-zag-zig” of XClan. Pioneering DJ/MC Kool DJ Herc was also from Jamaica, he combined mixing records with rapping based on the toasting of Jamaican MCs over one-off reggae dub plates with the vocals removed.
Towards a conclusion….
Interesting that from Prince Hall to Marcus Garvey, down to today’s Hip-Hop, there has long been a Caribbean connection to these nationalist and esoteric movements. Prince Hall may have been born in Barbados. Delany had suggested the West Indies as a goal for emigration. Garvey was Jamaican, as were the circle of intellectuals who comprised the leadership of the UNIA. The Rastafarians were also born in Jamaica, with a pan-Caribbean parentage. Most of these men were Freemasons or were themselves formed by churches founded by Freemasons. Michael Muhammad Knight’s books indicate a strong Caribbean-American presence in the Five Percenters, and the Moors had a lot of ex-Garveyite members, presumably many of them Caribbean as well; though Masonic borrowings exist through the Moors, the NOI and the Five Percenters, the leadership doesn’t seem to be composed of Freemasons, as it seems almost all their Black Nationalist predecessors were. Perhaps this is a reflection of the decline in the influence of American Freemasonry in general. Hip-Hop overlaps with many of these already Boolean circles; many pioneers were Jamaican, and MC’ing is generally acknowledged to have derived from Jamaican dance-hall toasting over dub plates. Something worth exploring is the extent to which Prince Hall masonry exists in the Hip-Hop community; at first impression it would appear significant. The link between the development of Hip-Hop and the Five Percenters is revealed in its shared slang and just this year Jay Z scored some publicity by sporting the 5 Percenter’s logo. And of course, many MC’s and DJ’s identify themselves as Muslims and members (or supporters) of the Nation of Islam.
Although it has been proposed that the dominant trends in Black Nationalism found in the Lodges was towards “Ethiopianism” and “Arabism”, the only large-scale plans for literal emigration were to Liberia. As we’ve stated, Garvey and Delany would both eventually travel there. Henry McNeal Turner traveled there four times. He encouraged emigration and organized conferences in Africa for that purpose. He also taught that God was black, something Garvey’s later African Orthodox Church would teach and is fundamental to Moorish Science, the NOI and the Five Percenters. The leaders of the UNIA, the Grand Lodge of Liberia and even the government of Liberia itself were all basically one extended group of Freemasons. Small wonder the nation’s flag features a Lone Star representing the Five Points of Fellowship, like most of the mostly short-lived Masonic republics founded in the “Golden Circle” centered on Havana; republics which sought, ironically, not to promote liberation, but to expand slavery. The Moors also have a flag with a five-pointed star — the flag of Morocco — but I’d be hard-pressed to make a case for a Masonic influence there. Still, it does remind me that the flag of Morocco once featured a six-pointed star, which makes me think of Judaism; this in turn, makes me think of the equally complex genealogy of Black Jews, a corollary and overlapping phenomenon to what we’ve written here. It’s just a big a part as the groups we’ve discussed, but I’ve got a long way to go before I can even attempt to write anything coherent about it.
I hope that upon finishing this, you don’t feel the same way about what you’ve just read.
Works to Consult
I’ve read all of the following books, some rather recently, but others 20 + years ago — but they all came into play when writing this post. Not being an academic paper, I can play a little loose with how I cite my sources. Obviously, I’ve also read or perused the articles and books cited directly in the text.
There must be SOMETHING to hold American Grand Masters responsible and accountable to acceptable Masonic practices. Otherwise Freemasonry in the United States is whatever a Grand Master and a Grand Lodge says it is, and you end up with 51 versions of Freemasonry, and sometimes Freemasonry out of control. There is a difference between differences because of tradition and differences solely for the purpose of an agenda that ends up corrupting the Craft. There is an urgent need in the United States for an American Masonic identity that binds all states and all members of the Craft in one common purpose and outlook.
This need not be some cumbersome bureaucracy added onto American Freemasonry. It could be as simple as a national Constitution and Freemasonry in the United States could be overseen by existing Masonic apparatus – the Conference of Grand Masters and the Masonic Service Association of North America.
Let’s look at an analogy – professional Major League Baseball. In the 20s you had the Black Sox scandal precipitated by abuses of the owners. In addition team owners were doing whatever they wanted with no standardized practices. Finally baseball realized it could not operate this way anymore, that the total freedom and separateness was dooming the national pastime. So the owners got together and appointed a Commissioner of baseball that still exists today. It keeps all the teams operating under the same set of rules and practices thereby eliminating corrupt and hurtful practices.
Like baseball teams, American Grand Lodges should not be able to do whatever they want. Now we perhaps don’t want a Commissioner of Freemasonry but we could continue on with a National Constitution with any administering or adjudication performed by the Council of Grand Masters with the help of the MSANA. This solution is simple, not adding any bureaucracy and keeps the sovereignty of each state Grand Lodge.
Greg Stewart then said: “You make an interesting point, one I’d like to come back to someday.”
Well Greg today is the day.
I was prompted to remember all this by two stories that were prominent in the news today, December 23, 2014. The first story was that of Detroit center Dominic Raiola being suspended for stomping on Bears defensive tackle Ego Ferguson on Sunday. Who suspended him? Why the NFL League Office on orders from Football Commissioner Roger Goodell. This was Raiola’s sixth rules violation related to player safety.
Now each football team is like each Mainstream Grand Lodge in the United States, a sovereign entity all to itself. But each team must answer to a higher power so that they are all playing by the same set of rules and that infractions in code or conduct are disciplined.
The problem with American Freemasonry is that there is no check on abuses. While baseball, football, basketball and hockey all have National Commissioners overseeing fair play, Freemasonry does not. It is much easier in other countries that have only one Grand Lodge. There is no competition to muck up the works. But in the good old U.S.A. there are 51 Grand Lodges who go their own separate way without ever having to worry about being disciplined for any infractions they desire to make.
4) The ailment of excessive planning and functionalism: this is when the apostle plans everything in detail and believes that, by perfect planning things effectively progress, thus becoming a sort of accountant. … One falls prey to this sickness because it is easier and more convenient to settle into static and unchanging positions. Indeed, the Church shows herself to be faithful to the Holy Spirit to the extent that she does not seek to regulate or domesticate it. The Spirit is freshness, imagination and innovation
6) Spiritual Alzheimer’s disease, or rather forgetfulness of the history of Salvation, of the personal history with the Lord, of the ‘first love’: this is a progressive decline of spiritual faculties, that over a period of time causes serious handicaps, making one incapable of carrying out certain activities autonomously, living in a state of absolute dependence on one’s own often imaginary views. We see this is those who have lost their recollection of their encounter with the Lord … in those who build walls around themselves and who increasingly transform into slaves to the idols they have sculpted with their own hands.
7) The ailment of rivalry and vainglory: when appearances, the colour of one’s robes, insignia and honours become the most important aim in life. … It is the disorder that leads us to become false men and women, living a false ‘mysticism’ and a false ‘quietism’.
8) Existential schizophrenia: the sickness of those who live a double life, fruit of the hypocrisy typical of the mediocre and the progressive spiritual emptiness that cannot be filled by degrees or academic honours. This ailment particularly afflicts those who, abandoning pastoral service, limit themselves to bureaucratic matters, thus losing contact with reality and with real people. They create a parallel world of their own, where they set aside everything they teach with severity to others and live a hidden, often dissolute life.
14) The ailment of closed circles: when belonging to a group becomes stronger than belonging to the Body and, in some situations, to Christ Himself. This sickness too may start from good intentions but, as time passes, enslaves members and becomes a ‘cancer’ that threatens the harmony of the Body and causes a great deal of harm – scandals – especially to our littlest brothers.
15) The disease of worldly profit and exhibitionism: when the apostle transforms his service into power, and his power into goods to obtain worldly profits or more power. This is the disease of those who seek insatiably to multiply their power and are therefore capable of slandering, defaming and discrediting others, even in newspapers and magazines, naturally in order to brag and to show they are more capable than others.
Now what this all illustrates is that large, unwieldy, bureaucratic Institutions become easily corruptible and that Freemasons can step over the line into the Dark Side just as the rest of the world can.
It also shows, in the case of the Roman Catholic Church, that large institutions can create a bureaucracy that insulates itself from accountability. And that, in this case, a top down rule and regulation has not worked well.
We are all sinners, as some clerics will say. Others might remark that some sin more often and more gravely than others. Whatever the case may be most of us do lock our houses and our vehicles, put firewalls and antivirus programs on our computers and are cautious when in strange environments. We do support a Police Force and The Military for good reason.
Yet we do not apply any of these safeguards to Freemasonry. Thus we have allowed Freemasonry to go unchecked, unpoliced and never to be held accountable for whatever it wants to do. The result is that some of Freemasonry has become tyrannical and abusive (notice I said some not all). We have one Grand Lodge that wrote a Landmark into its Constitution that stated whatever the Grand Master ruled was the law and was to be accepted without question. This Landmark overruled any and all other Landmarks. Now do you think any of the Sports Commissioners would allow a team to get away with that?
Perhaps if Freemasonry had policed itself the injustice that West Virginia perpetrated on PGM Frank Haas would never have been allowed. Perhaps the Grand Lodge of Arkansas would not have tried to expel Derek Gordon. Maybe the Grand Lodge of Georgia would not have tried to expel Victor Marshall or treated him so shabbily. Perhaps the Grand Lodge of Florida would not have threatened to expel Corey Bryson and Duke Bass for non Christian religious beliefs to the point that they resigned. And we could go on and on and on.
So what’s the answer? I have no definitive answer except that Mainstream Masonry must try somehow to police itself. Maybe the Conference of Grand Masters could form a Supreme Court among itself and only meet when some event requires a ruling. Thus it would not be a permanent bureaucracy. One thing is for sure, the Catholic Church model doesn’t work well either.
United States Mainstream Freemasonry has been in need of an American identity for years instead of a “states rights’ mentality. Mainstream’s father, the Grand Lodge of England (now UGLE) did not operate this way. There is one Grand Lodge and therefore a strong English Masonic identity. I realize that many other nations have multiple Grand Lodges but how many have as many as 51? If you can get your mind into thinking American not Californian or Texan or Virginian then maybe you can see some sort of cohesiveness to American Freemasonry where we all play by the same rules and we all accept the same foundation. Couple that with some kind of National policing mechanism and American Mainstream Freemasonry might actually grow.
But there is no panacea here. Look at the failures in the Catholic Church. Look at the shortcomings of Roger Goodell in the Ray Rice and Adrian Peterson affairs. It seems as if corruption is always with us. Is it human nature? I don’t know. I’m not here to pass judgment but to help think of solutions. The one thing I do know is that if Dominic Raiola can be disciplined for stomping on another player, Mainstream Masonry can do the same to Grand Masters and Grand Lodge officers who stomp on their members.
A crew is at work in Boston unearthing a time capsule believed buried by patriots Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. CNN affiliate WBZ reports, the 18th-century capsule was left in a cornerstone of the Massachusetts State House. The capsule is believed to date from 1795, when construction started on the building. The cornerstone has been removed because of repair work to the historic building, and a worker from the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston was chipping away at it Thursday to get at the capsule. Massachusetts Secretary of State William Galvin, who also heads the state’s historical commission said, the capsule contains rare coins, a Paul Revere plate, papers and other artifacts dating back to the 1600s. He said, he capsule was last dug up during emergency repairs to the State House in 1855 and put back in place when the cornerstone was reset. – WochitGeneralNews
BOSTON (AP) — Crews removed a time capsule dating back to 1795 on Thursday from the granite cornerstone of the Massachusetts Statehouse, where historians believe it was originally placed by Revolutionary War luminaries Samuel Adams and Paul Revere among others.
The small time capsule is believed to contain items such as old coins, documents, newspapers and a metal plate that was owned by Revere. Secretary of State William Galvin speculated that some of the items could have deteriorated over time.
Official plan to X-ray the capsule on Sunday at Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts to get some idea of the contents and possibly details on their condition, then open it next week.
Originally made of cowhide, the time capsule was believed to have been embedded in the cornerstone when construction on the state Capitol began in 1795. Adams was governor of Massachusetts at the time.
The time capsule was removed in the mid-19th century and its contents transferred to a copper box, Galvin said. Its removal Thursday was due to an ongoing water filtration project at the building. Galvin said the plan is to return it to the site sometime next year.
Pamela Hatchfield, a conservator at the museum, was exhausted Thursday after spending hours chiseling and drilling on the massive cornerstone, taking care not to damage the time capsule or coins that were thrown in the mortar that held it in place.
She held up the capsule for viewing by state officials, reporters and contractors involved in the renovation of the Statehouse.
“It’s heavy,” Hatchfield said. “I feel happy and relieved and excited and really interested to see what’s in this box.”
Hatchfield said state officials did not know that the time capsule was embedded in the cornerstone until 60 years after some of the nation’s leading founding political figures put it there.
“It was first put in there in 1795 by Paul Revere and Sam Adams and was unearthed accidentally when in 1855 there were some amendments to the building,” Hatchfield said. “They put the contents back into a new box and placed it in a depression in the stone, which is on the underside.”
Galvin said there were notes from 1855 indicating that officials washed some of the contents in the capsule with acid before putting them in the new copper box.
It also was a humid day when the items were restored and, Galvin said, the corner of the Statehouse where the capsule was fixed has had a water leakage problem for 30 years.
“We have to see what held up since that time,” he said. “That’s the biggest question we have right now — are the contents in good condition or not?”
Galvin said the Massachusetts Statehouse is one of the oldest, active statehouses in the country.
“Obviously, when we talk about the original box being presided over by then-Gov. Sam Adams, Paul Revere, it’s pretty significant,” he said. “I’m very fond of saying … that the history of Massachusetts is the history of America, and it’s very true and this is another evidence of that.”
The excavation came just months after another time capsule was uncovered from the Old State House, which served as the state’s first seat of government. That long-forgotten time capsule, dating to 1901, turned up in a lion statue atop the building and, when opened, was found to contain a potpourri of well-preserved items including newspaper clippings, a book on foreign policy and a letter from journalists of the period.
But The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts AF & AM is not so sure that the newspapers have the correct take on the story. They call it the Paul Revere Time Capsule period and in a press release on the Grand Lodge site titled “1795 PAUL REVERE TIME CAPSULE RE-DISCOVERED“ has this to say:
On the morning of December 11th, 2014, a work crew removed the cornerstone from the Massachusetts State House on Beacon Hill. Inside, they discovered what was initially being reported as a 1795 Paul Revere era time capsule with “previously unknown” contents.
Previously unknown? We beg to differ. Why? We were there! The Grand Lodge of Masons in Massachusetts has kept detailed proceedings of its activities since inception in 1733.
The town of Boston purchased a plot of land east of Beacon Hill in 1795 for $13,000 that was previously part of Governor John Hancock’s estate. That estate was then given to the state by the town for the purpose of constructing a new state house.
Governor Samuel Adams requested that the Grand Lodge of Masons in Massachusetts assist with the laying of the cornerstone, and saw to it that “the ceremony was performed in due form… with the usual rites of ancient Masonry.”
On July 4th of that year Governor Adams, Grand Master Revere, and Deputy Grand Master William Scollay laid the cornerstone after “the Grand Master had deposited under it a number of gold, silver, and copper coins, and a silver plate bearing an inscription” describing the event.
On August 7, 1855, while workmen were making repairs to the foundation of the State House, they “were surprised by the appearance of a few copper coins and a small leaden box… put together without the usual solder generally used by workers in that metal. This accidental discovery of the original cornerstone resulted in having the same plate and coins replaced without any special display under a new stone” in the same location (Freemason’s Monthly Magazine, Vol. XIV, p. 367).
Our records give a detailed account of the exact contents of the time capsule that has been rediscovered. Just like everyone else – we’re eager to see how well they have withstood the test of time.
Should the capsule be re-interred, we’d love to continue the tradition of laying the cornerstone in due form.
Intervisitation with The Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Texas has just been approved by the Grand Lodge of Texas on Saturday December 6, 2014 at 12 Noon. The Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Texas approved the same in its mid-winter Grand Session in November. The two Grand Lodges have been under mutual recognition without visitation for a number of years. Now that cross visitation has been approved by both parties it is a reality.
The two Texas Grand Lodges signed a compact of mutual recognition on April 23, 2007 but without cross visitation. So for the past seven years Freemasons from one Grand Lodge could not attend the Communications of the other Grand Lodge.
This is all water over the dam now. A new day has dawned and a new era of brotherly love and affection has begun.
Masonic artist Brother Ryan J. Flynn has his latest work completed, THE PORTALE PANEL – an Entered Apprentice Tracing Board.
He describes this beautiful piece of art as follows:
Brethren, Ladies and gentlemen, I am pleased to present to you my very first Tracing Board. The Portale Panel Egg Tempera on Wood; Gold Leaf and Wood Stained Wooden Frame 24in x 36in Center panel. entire work 40 in 52in;
First of all note that there is a definite Celtic and medieval influence to what Flynn is doing now. Much of that can be seen in Patents or Masonic Certificates, what we called in the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts a Masonic diploma.
Often Flynn will produce graphic documents using Giclee Printing, that is printing with pigment. It never fades. Then he will hand accent with gold or silver and sometimes copper. The effect is illuminated documents.
Take the Novem Rose. He has designed it to be stained glass in a shadow box. Flynn would like to also do a Master Mason tracing board in stained glass.
Then who but a great artistic mind would design the Regis Pattern Certificate with a small print border of the Regis Poem. How about mirror printing or reverse writing?
Flynn puts some mystery into his documents, some codes and symbols you have to look closely to find and decipher.
The three part Middle Chamber depiction of 1) The Pillars, 2) The Steps and 3) Geometry is writing done in pig pen cipher. The pillars will be accented with bronze and elsewhere gold and silver will be used as a highlight.
When you stop and analyze what Flynn is producing you have to admire the ingenuity, the majestic style, the novel methods and the sheer artistic quality of each piece. Nobody that I know in the Masonic community is offering artwork that matches what Brother Ryan Flynn is turning out. You owe it to yourself to visit his website , http://www.ryanjflynn.com/ and take it all in. And on Facebook – http://www.facebook.com/RyanJFlynnArtist