Freemasonry’s Epic History

Frontispiece from Anderson's Constitutions

Frontispiece from Anderson’s Constitutions

Any Freemason that has taken a moment to delve into the history of Freemasonry, has undoubtedly discovered a legendary history of the order. Typically these histories will include an account of the fraternity as carried down from Adam through the building of King Solomon’s Temple and practiced by Pythagoras. For many Freemasons, these histories are confusing. While they are very grand and interesting, they leave much to be desired by the inquiring mind. Today, we will examine where these legends came from, discuss their purpose, and hopefully shed some light on these epic Masonic histories.

The first known account of Masonic history that included prominent characters from the Bible and the classic periods was included in Anderson’s Constitutions of the Free-Masons. This particular history is very elaborate and includes the great influence of Masonry throughout the existence of man, including its effect on the history of England. Anderson’s Constitutions does not explain whence this account originated nor does it reference any documents which can provide additional information. It is a speculative account of Freemasonry’s origins, which was developed to imply the greater grandeur of the noble order.

The practice of creating these histories was not uncommon during the period that Anderson composed the Constitutions. A quick investigation of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows will show that this organization also provides a speculative history. Some trace that particular order back to the exile of the Israelites in Babylon.2,3 These elaborate histories are intended to provide a sense of pride in the fraternity by appealing to one’s religious and geographical identity. Not surprisingly, the founders of modern Freemasonry in England included characters from the Old Testament and British royalty in their history to appeal to their member’s religious beliefs and patriotism. Perhaps the fact that the Freemasons had one of the most detailed and awe-inspiring historical accounts contributed to their unmatched success as a fraternal order.

Despite the fact that this historical account seems obviously fabricated to create a greater reverence for Masonry, many Masonic scholars have expanded upon these legends. These elaborations are probably the primary reason that some Freemasons are quite convinced that these legends are true. Albert G. Mackey, Albert Pike, and Manly P. Hall are among those that embellish the first Masonic epic from the Constitutions of 1723. These accounts include a detailed history of how Masonry was established and passed among the Hebrews, the union of chivalric orders such as the Knights Templar with Freemasonry, and the effects of the mystic traditions on the fraternity. Whether these scholars intended for their histories to be viewed as legendary or factual is unknown. What is known is that these accounts are completely lacking in any historical basis and like the history provided by Anderson, was probably intended to provide a sense of purpose for the order.

What we do know about the origins of Freemasonry is that the first Grand Lodge was formed in the early 18th Century by a few speculative lodges that had been operating independently for some time. We may never know the true history of our speculative art, but we can take pride in the organization that it has become. Additionally, our speculative history does serve as the basis for many of our beautiful degrees. It is entertaining and rich in symbolism. It is a part of who we are as a fraternity and as long as we recognize the Masonic legend for its ritualistic significance and not as factual evidence of our longevity, it will continue to serve our noble order well.

Re-Building the Temple

In the legend of Freemasonry, the building of King Solomon’s Temple serves as the allegorical centerpiece for the symbolism of our order. The completion of the temple was a grand accomplishment and has captured the awe and admiration of many generations. But despite its beauty and perfection, the temple was destroyed and necessarily rebuilt under the Persian King Darius.

Sometimes, I like to think of my Masonic journey as building my own spiritual temple. A couple of years ago, The Banks of the Euphrates was running articles every week. I was personally very involved in my Blue Lodge, the York Rite, and Scottish Rite. I had built my First Temple, it was well constructed and I was proud of my work. However, the ebb and flow of the tide of life brought some changes and starting eroding the foundation of my temple. I stopped attending lodge, I started lacking the desire and motivation to write, and soon I had set my Masonic studies to the side.

I found that without Freemasonry, there was a huge void in my life.

So I would like to announce that my column–The Banks of the Euphrates–is back. However, like the second temple it will not be an exact replicate of its predecessor. I am going to attempt to remove the superfluities of its previous version and focus solely on Masonic philosophy and history, spirituality, and symbolism. Freemasonry is not the organization or its outward appearance, it is its philosophy and the undeniable truths which it unveils to the industrious inquirer.

If you previously read The Euphrates, I hope you enjoy its rebirth. If you are a new reader I hope that you find the articles contemplative and refreshing. I personally am looking forward to our journey together.

Like what you are reading at The Euphrates? Email me at

Are You Experienced?

“Have you ever been experienced? Well…I have.” -Jimi Hendrix

are you experienced jimi hendrixI was listening to the Are You Experienced album by Jimi Hendrix the other day. I listen to the album in its entirety about once a month. I find it incredibly inspirational. Every time that I hear the opening riff to Purple Haze I feel like I’m hearing it for the first time. It is so fresh, so original, and so futuristic…even though the album was released 43 years ago.

At this point, many of you are probably asking, “What does this have to do with Masonry?” Well, I’ll tell you.

One of the greatest characteristics that Jimi Hendrix possessed was that he really challenged the natural order of things. Many of his peers felt threatened by his musical prowess and originality. Pete Townshend, Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and even John Lennon and Paul McCartney felt that Hendrix may possess the ability to put them out of business. Some respected him for that. Some did not.

Hendrix also represented the counter-culture of the 60’s, but in a different way than many of his contemporaries. He didn’t discuss his political philosophy by an outright partisan protest, but rather by passive suggestions and asking rhetorical questions about the state of world affairs. He used his music and his celebrity as a way to open people’s minds instead of drawing a divisive line in the sand. In a lot of ways, Freemasonry is intended to do this for its initiates.

Freemasonry has always challenged the natural order of the world. For centuries, religious organizations and governments have opposed its “questionable motives.” They oppose it for a good reason: Freemasonry promotes individual enlightenment and the right of every man to find his path to a greater existence. Not surprisingly, in order to accomplish those goals a man must challenge his preconceived opinions on spirituality, politics, and philosophy. This makes it difficult for a man belonging to the Masonic fraternity to be controlled by his church or his government.

Unfortunately, one of the problems with Freemasonry today is that we no longer require our initiates to open their minds and challenge their beliefs. We no longer get “experienced.”

There are many reasons for this. One of the major issues facing Freemasonry today is that our organization is very concerned about discrediting any accusations of sinister activities by our fraternity. We spend a lot of time and money on institutionalized charity and removing any mystery surrounding the order in order to combat any unfavorable opinions about Masonry. When mentoring our candidates, we turn our degrees from deep, philosophical allegories into shallow fables. Most Masons don’t do any sort of Masonic research on their own and they certainly don’t receive any in lodge. Today’s Masonry is a charitable civic organization, where a man improves himself simply by joining. We talk about turning the rough ashlar into the perfect ashlar, but we don’t actually pick up the chisel and attempt to transform ourselves.

Of course, some men do experience a transformation because they are diligent in their Masonic studies. I certainly changed a lot of my views and opinions after becoming a Mason. It challenged many preconceived notions that I held. At first, I resisted the new ideas that were floating around in my head, but I finally allowed reason be the victor. I truly feel like I got “experienced.” Sadly, many of our initiates never have this feeling. They never see Freemasonry as being anything more than a set of rituals, a charitable organization, or a social club. They completely miss its complex intricacies. Of course, this makes the questions from our candidates simpler and much easier to answer and for those initiates that feel the need to ask a difficult question, there is always a politically correct answer in some Grand Lodge publication.

We must bring back the process of getting “experienced” back to Freemasonry.

Our Brethren and our initiates should have their minds challenged at every lodge meeting. Our lodge education should be something out of the ordinary. Discussions should be held about every topic that is presented and the Brethren must understand that Freemasonry is about keeping the mind open to new enlightenment.

Have you ever been experienced?

good food, lodge, meal

Taking Lodge Back to the Table

good food, lodge, mealThroughout my experience in Freemasonry, I have been able to determine that there is one guaranteed way to increase meeting attendance and activity among the membership: provide excellent food.

It really is no surprise that food is an important part of the Masonic experience. In his book Catching Fire, Harvard-based anthropologist Richard Wrangham suggests that the act of cooking and eating has made humans evolve into social creatures. Food is at the center of virtually every social function that takes place in our society. Humans often get together to have cookouts or go out to eat. So, not surprisingly, having a dinner as part of lodge functions enhances the overall experience.

I have seen different methods of providing a lodge dinner. One way is for the lodge members to cook the meal themselves. Sometimes, this is largely successful. Some lodges have the Brethren get together and cook the meal as a sort of social event with great success. Often, these lodges have members that enjoy the act of cooking and are very good at the art of preparing food. On the other hand, many of the lodges that cook the meals themselves produce bland, sub-par dinners that attract little attention from the members. In these lodges, the task of cooking is thought of as a chore and often the success of the meal is considered to be directly proportional to how cheaply it could be provided.

Another method of providing food is to have a meal catered or take the lodge event to a restaurant. This method requires the Brethren to either pay out of pocket or provide sufficient funds to the lodge to purchase such services. This is personally my favorite way to provide a feast at the lodge. It allows the Brethren to show up and enjoy the meal rather than show up at the lodge to work in the kitchen. Unfortunately, many Masons see this as an unneeded expenditure. They feel that it is too expensive for the Brethren. However, they don’t understand that a lodge can often purchase meals for the members for less than $20 per member per month. I believe that Masonry is worth $20 a month, but that is a subject for another article.

Regardless of how a meal is procured, it’s quality must be top notch. If you eat off of paper plates, the experience feels cheap and unimpressive. It is amazing how the attitude of a lodge will change when a dinner requires real glassware and silverware. Also, it is suggested that attire for a meal be at least a shirt and tie, but again that is a subject for another article.

Now, here is where I am going to suggest a real change. Historically, Masonry took place at the dinner table. The 1734 version of Anderson’s Consitutions contains a list of General Regulations which mention how Masonic feasts should be administered numerous times. In other words, feasting was so important that it was actually included in the earliest Masonic regulations. In America, early lodges were accustomed to meeting in taverns and enjoying food and drink as part of their meetings. I suggest that we must take the lodge back to the table. The lodge room is for degree work and conducting the regular business meetings, but the table is where the real Masonic intercourse can take place. Discussion about Masonry and Masonic education is better digested at the dinner table. The Brethren are more relaxed and less anxious. In the lodge room, the members often become restless and are in a hurry to end the meeting. But at the table, the Brethren are willing to sit and enjoy themselves.

You can hold many different functions at the table. Hold an official table lodge, invite a guest speaker to make some remarks, have a round table discussion, or allow Brothers an open forum to present their views on Masonic teachings. The possibilities are endless. It is guaranteed that good feasts combined with interesting conversation or speakers and a quality atmosphere will lead to a more active lodge.

One of the first changes that we can make to truly improve Freemasonry is to get back to the dinner table. Hold Masonic feasts regularly and often. Make them classy affairs that the Brethren can be excited about and look forward to attending. If the Brethren perceive their time with the lodge as valuable, they will not be afraid to spend a little money in order to enjoy a dinner with their fellow Masons.

Becoming a Dues Paying Mason

dues cardThroughout my entire experience in Freemasonry, I have wondered what can be done to bring those Freemasons that do not attend lodge meetings back into our temples. I found these dues-paying Masons to be a frustrating breed. They must believe that being a Freemason is important enough to continually make a monetary payment to their Masonic organizations and yet it is not important enough for them to actually attend and contribute their time.

I assisted in planning and executing a number of lodge functions in order to bring these silent members back and there seemed to be no response. I began to develop the opinion that these men were simply neglecting their Masonic duties.

And then, I became one of them.

It wasn’t intentional at first. It started by moving to another town, then I became busy with my career, then I lost contact with my closest Brothers, and then before I knew it, Masonry wasn’t even on my mind anymore. Occasionally I would post a story on The Euphrates that I had written while I was active in the lodge, but that was only because it was convenient and could be done in five minutes. I was literally uninterested in Freemasonry.

This sounds like an easy problem to fix. If you aren’t an active Freemason, just attend a lodge meeting and get involved, right?

Wrong. I found out rather quickly that there was nothing motivating me to go back to lodge.

There isn’t anything interesting about a lodge meeting. We pay the bills, plan mundane dinners, and discuss our charitable endeavors. I didn’t join the Freemasons to do any of those things and no one ever told me that that is what we really do when I was petitioning. I stopped caring about Masonry, because Masonry was boring and a complete waste of my time. I realized that the only reason I used to be active was because I enjoyed socializing with the many good friends that I had in my lodge. Without that connection, Masonry was no longer important.

That is the problem with modern Freemasonry. I’ve heard so many Masons say “You’ll meet so many good men in Masonry.” Well, sure you do, but I have also met many good men outside of Freemasonry and the vast majority of my friends do not belong to the fraternity. So that is no reason to join or remain a Freemason.

Many men cannot explain exactly why they want to be a Freemason, but it almost always has the same theme. Men join Freemasonry because they believe that it will lead them to enlightenment both mentally and spiritually, give them some sort of moral compass, and will help them to lead a better life. They expect a top-notch society. One in which all men meet upon the level, but upon a level above the profane world outside of the lodge. They expect an education. They expect class. They expect a life-changing experience.

I know, because that is exactly what I expected.

Sadly, our lodges are stuck in a time warp. We are obsessed with sticking to the 1950’s model of a civic organization. We talk about making our lodges more attractive and yet we continue to operate them in the same outdated way. We want to operate on the cheap. We want to “dumb down” Masonry to make it easier to grasp. We want to copy the model that Rotary and Kiwanis have provided instead of following the model that Freemasonry created over 250 years ago. We have turned our organization into an outrageous bureaucracy where every single event requires the unneeded approval of some Masonic dignitary. The world’s greatest fraternity has become the world’s most mundane organization.

That is the state of Freemasonry today. That is why men become dues-paying Masons. That is why I became a dues-paying Mason. If Freemasons want the society to survive, some radical changes must be made. Over the next few weeks, I am going to discuss this in detail.

The question that must be discussed is: “What must Freemasonry become in order to be relevant in American society again?”

eye of god, providence, triangle eye

The Vast Indifference of Heaven

We contemplate eternity beneath the vast indifference of heaven.” -Warren Zevon

My favorite songwriter of all time is the late Warren Zevon.

Warren was incredibly adept at vocalizing the reality of his emotions through the medium of music. One of his works that has become a favorite of mine is his song “Indifference of Heaven.” To me, the song tackles an issue that most humans are afraid of addressing: does God really play an active role in the human existence?

Most people that I have met refuse to even consider this question and with good reason. The idea of an almighty being that doesn’t influence world events or care about our day-to-day existence is unnerving. We naturally want to believe that God is on “our side,” that God wants what is best for us, and that God will protect us. The desire to be one of God’s chosen people has been instilled in us through many different religions. It is a perfectly natural desire and it seems like a logical assumption. If God cared enough to create us, then he would care enough to make sure that everything turns out well for us, right?

all seeing eyeOne spiritual ideology that separates itself from this belief is Deism. Deism is a belief that came out of the Enlightenment Age of the 17th and 18th centuries. It is the belief that the Supreme Architect of the Universe created the universe and all things therein contained, but is not involved in man’s existence. It rejects the idea of divine miracles, revelations, or prophets. However, Deists do believe that all of the universe’s natural processes were put in place by the Almighty Creator and that God does desire for us to act morally.

Deism doesn’t necessarily declare that God is indifferent, but depending on one’s view of this theological ideal Deism could imply that indifference is one of God’s characteristics. Frankly, I think that the idea of an indifferent God can be comforting at times. Consider an event like the Holocaust. It is much more difficult to understand how a God that interferes with human actions would allow such a tragedy to occur. What about those times when a crime is committed and the victim is an innocent law-abiding and God-fearing citizen? How can we accept that a proactive Deity allows these things to happen? Yet, we find ways to rationalize God’s inaction and decide that tragedies are all part of God’s plan.

Maybe there is another way of looking at the vast indifference of heaven. Maybe we don’t have to accept that God is indifferent or that he does direct the course of human action and allows bad things to happen for a reason. Like many people, I like to think of God as a father figure. A good father knows that he cannot run the lives of his children, because if he doesn’t allow them to realize the consequences of their own actions they may become dependent on his guidance and will suffer in the long run because they are not capable of making responsible decisions. He may well know that his child intends on going to a party on the weekend which may result in his child making a wrong decision. So he raises his child by giving them a good example of proper conduct and trusts that they will make the correct decision when it is necessary. Perhaps God works in the same way. He has given us his guidance through various religious texts and trusts that we act in an upright manner, but he also realizes that we must suffer the consequences of our own mistakes.

The truth is that while we exist in this world, we may never know the real characteristics of God. He may be interested in our lives, indifferent, or like a loving father, gently guiding us to follow the right path. But one thing that will not change is that we will all–at one time or another–feel like we are “contemplating eternity beneath the vast indifference of heaven.”

The First Year of the Euphrates e-Book is Now Available!

ebook, Banks of the Euphrates, Freemasonry

The Banks of the Euphrates–The First Year e-Book is now available!

It is finally here! I have finished putting together the free e-book that I promised to create which celebrates the first year of the Banks of the Euphrates on Freemason Information Magazine.  This book features the best of the articles which were featured on the Euphrates over the past year. I thoroughly enjoyed reviewing the articles and selecting some of my favorites for this e-book and I hope that you will enjoy revisiting some of the moments from the past twelve months as well.

The Banks of the Euphrates-The First Year

The book is available for download in .pdf form by clicking on the link above. Thanks for reading and I hope that there are many more years of articles to come!

Like what you are reading at the Euphrates? Email the author at to join the Banks of the Euphrates mailing list.

Facebook Freemasonry

facebook freemasonryOnce upon a time, organizations like Freemasonry were one of the most common forms of entertainment. Fraternities and community organizations offered a getaway from the daily routine and a chance to network with individuals that a person might not typically meet. Regardless of how much Freemasons talk about the necessity of education in our lodges—which is an issue that I regularly address—the truth is that the success of Freemasonry and other organizations is largely attributed to the fact that men are social creatures.

It seems that every time I attempt to answer the question “Why are you a Freemason?” I try to answer it by talking about my desire to seek self improvement through Freemasonry’s philosophy and allegorical lessons. But after stumbling through a long dissertation on that particular subject, I almost always come back to an easier reply: “Because Freemasonry has given me the opportunity to meet and associate with men of the finest character.”

Since I have become a Freemason, the constant focus of the Masonic organizations that I have been involved with has been how to attract new men to the fraternity and bring Brothers that don’t attend lodge back to our meetings. Many Brothers blame the fact that there are many other forms of entertainment available in today’s society. There is a lot of truth in this assumption because the way that people socialize has changed with technology. There was a time when a man would have to join an organization like Freemasonry in order to have a place to go and converse with other men sharing the same interests. Now, people can get home from work and plop down in front of the computer to spend an evening on Facebook.

I have heard a lot of my Brothers claim that the people who would rather spend time on Facebook or any other form of social media than come to a lodge meeting don’t know what they are missing. But what are they missing? Let’s take a look at what Facebook offers. There are no awkward introductions with Facebook, if you want to add someone as a friend you simply have to click your mouse. Anyone that has filled out a petition for Masonry knows that it can be intimidating to be the “new guy” and many seasoned Freemasons have to admit that visiting an unfamiliar lodge can make you feel like you don’t fit in. When you lose contact with a friend on Facebook, it is simple to write a brief message on their wall or check their status. If you lose contact with your Masonic lodge, it can sometimes be difficult to stay up to date with all of the lodge’s events. Finally, Facebook offers each person the ability to proudly show off their individuality. A person can proclaim everything about themselves on Facebook and show who they are as an individual. Unfortunately, our lodges don’t always offer this same opportunity to our Brothers. We show up, conduct our meeting, and leave without giving us a chance to show who we are or learn about the lives of our Brethren.

So when a man must make a decision between spending an evening on-line checking up on all of his Facebook friends or going to lodge only to make awkward conversation with somebody he doesn’t know very well and be just another Mason sitting through another lodge meeting, which one will he choose?

Maybe our lodges should be a little more like Facebook. Maybe we should spend a little less time having meetings and a little more time socializing. We should spend more time getting to know who our Brothers are, what they do for a living, and what they do for fun. The more we learn about our Brothers, the more likely it is that we will find that we have something in common. When we have something in common, we might just find that we can have a more interesting evening at the lodge than spending an evening on Facebook.

Let’s make sure that our lodges are reading and writing on the figurative Facebook wall of our Brothers’ lives. Let’s make fellowship and social networking a focus in our fraternity.

Celebrating One Year!

I’d like to take a step back from my usual articles today to celebrate the anniversary of something very important to me. This day, February 28th, marks the one year anniversary of The Banks of the Euphrates appearing on Freemason Information Magazine. On February 28th, 2009, I posted my first article on this website and my first year working with Greg, Dean, Fred, Shane, and the rest of the gang has been nothing short of a fantastic Masonic experience.

However, the point of this article is not to expound on how great I think that my articles have been or how much success I have had in writing The Euphrates. I don’t think that I am some sort of great Masonic writer and I certainly don’t think that my articles are of any major significance to the Masonic world. What I want to talk about today, is how much I have enjoyed the opportunity to write articles about what Freemasonry means to me.

Freemasonry has played a huge role in my life since I first knocked on the inner door of a lodge. It has served as a catalyst for my studies on religion and philosophy. It has given me an opportunity to meet men of the finest character, many of whom have become fantastic friends. It has also served as a guide in my own personal development. When my life hit rock bottom, my Brothers were at my side. When I needed advice, a Brother was there to provide it. Masonry has become the driving force in my life to be a better man, to act upon the square, and to provide relief to those that have proven themselves worthy.

I knew that I could not be alone in feeling this way about the order. So I started writing The Euphrates to give me my own personal soapbox to talk about Freemasonry and relay the lessons that it has taught me. But writing The Euphrates also provided me with an unexpected benefit, the opportunity to communicate with Brethren from throughout the world. Many of you have sent me emails and I have had the good fortune of forming a friendship with you through correspondence. I cherish that opportunity and hope that I continue to receive so much feedback in the future.

Because of the fantastic experience that I have had over this past year, I wanted to celebrate it by doing something special. I will soon be releasing a free e-book featuring the best articles from the first year of The Banks of the Euphrates. The e-book will also feature some commentary on my thoughts while writing those articles. I am in the middle of editing it now and plan to have it available within the month. I know that I enjoyed reviewing the articles that I wrote from the past year and I hope you will as well.

I want to thank all of you for reading my column and encourage you to keep the correspondence coming. I hope that I can make the next year’s worth of articles even better.

Like what you are reading at the Euphrates? Email the author at to join the Banks of the Euphrates mailing list.

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Ancients Versus Moderns

Lynn stepped outside of the lodge building to have a cigarette. It was a cold winter night, the temperature had dipped below freezing and there was snow on the ground. The entire town seemed to be silent. There was no wind and the light from the full moon was reflecting off of the snow and softly illuminating the world around him. The cold air on his skin was refreshing and the beautiful scene made him feel at peace.

This peace was a welcomed feeling. Lynn had joined this lodge because they brought in Masonic historians and lecturers quite frequently. This evening’s speaker has chosen to expound upon the origins of Freemasonry. In particular, he had discussed the histories of the Ancients and the Moderns and had attempted to prove which Masonic movement was the “true” Masonry. The subject had produced a fairly heated discussion among the Brethren who believed that they were experts on the issue. Lynn hadn’t wanted any part of it and so he made a point to escape for a few moments before dinner was served and further discussion ensued.

What made the subject somewhat bothersome to him was that he wasn’t unfamiliar with the argument. Lynn had read several papers and even a couple of books on the history of Freemasonry. He had read works on the subject which had been written by a plethora of authors. Some of those authors were Freemasons and others were not. He had found it frustrating that the only conclusion that he could develop was that the number of theories about the origins of Freemasonry was directly proportional to the number of authors that created them. Only one thing was for certain: the jury was definitely still out on the subject.

Lynn puffed on his cigarette and stared at the red light which was being emitted from its end. Then he looked up to see the blue glow of the moon highlighting the white stones which composed the lodge building. The building was well built and all of the stones were nicely hewn and sat square in the edifice. The structural integrity of the lodge building seemed to be a monument to the solidarity of the order which it represented. A visual manifestation of the fraternity which it housed.

Lynn thought about the men that had built the lodge. He wondered how they had raised the money to construct it. He thought about the time that it took to quarry and hew the stones and assemble the structure out of those perfect ashlars. He wondered what men had been employed in this noble and glorious undertaking. How did they learn to perform their craft so proficiently?

Suddenly, he had an epiphany.

It didn’t matter how those men learned their craft. Some had probably learned how to construct such a building without any formal training. They had went to work for a mason or a carpenter early in their lives and had learned through experience. Perhaps some were professionally educated and trained and had earned prestigious degrees in their particular vocation. Regardless, they were able, they were competent, and they were experts. Their education did not matter, but the product that they were able to provide did.

“Maybe it doesn’t matter how the Brothers before us learned to be Masons or who was responsible for teaching them,” he thought, “maybe all that matters is what the institution has become and what it represents now.

Lynn put out his cigarette and reentered the lodge building. He noticed that he was a bit peckish and wondered what they were serving for dinner.